Leomar M. Sabroso, Cathy Cadusale, Eulalio C. Patayon


Maintaining peace and harmony is a crucial challenge for developing nations, and the crime rate is a significant factor in achieving this goal. This study is intended to examine the relationship between a developing country's crime rate and the economic factors that influence it. This quantitative study aims to test the objective hypotheses through multiple regression analysis. The study utilized secondary data from the World Bank from 1990 to 2018 to assess the Philippines' crime rate and economic factors. The analysis reveals that economic factors, such as urbanization, GDP per capita, financial development, and labor force, substantially impact the national crime rate. This study provides policymakers with vital insights for implementing evidence-based peace and development initiative strategies.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


criminality, economic cost, impact on development

Full Text:



Abdouli, M., & Hammami, S. (2020). Economic Growth, Environment, FDI Inflows, and Financial Development in Middle East Countries: Fresh Evidence from Simultaneous Equation Models. Journal of the Knowledge Economy.

Abdullah, L. (2015). Linear relationship between CO2 emissions and economic variables: Evidence from a developed country and a developing country. Journal of Sustainable Development.

Afriyanto, M. M. (2017). The impact of crime on foreign direct investment in Indonesia. Economic Journal of Emerging Markets.

Andresen, M. A. (2015). Unemployment, GDP, and crime: The importance of multiple measurements of the economy. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

Battin, J. R., & Crowl, J. N. (2017). Urban sprawl, population density, and crime: An examination of contemporary migration trends and crime in suburban and rural neighborhoods. Crime Prevention and Community Safety.

Barua, R., & Mahesh, M. (2018). Financial Development, Crime, and Income Inequality in India.

Becker, G. S. (1968). Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach. Journal of Political Economy.

Brown, L., & Hibbert, K. (2019). The Incidence of Crime on Industry-Level Foreign Direct Investment: An Assessment of OECD Member Countries. Social Science Quarterly.

Cabral, R., Mollick, A. V., & Saucedo, E. (2019). Foreign Direct Investment in Mexico, Crime, And Economic Forces. Contemporary Economic Policy.

Chakraborty, T., Mukherjee, A., Rachapalli, S. R., & Saha, S. (2018). Stigma of sexual violence and women’s decision to work. World Development.

Chang, Y. S., Jo, S. J., Lee, Y. T., & Lee, Y. (2021). Population density or populations size. Which factor determines urban traffic congestion? Sustainability (Switzerland).

Coleman, J. W. (1992). Crime and money: Motivation and opportunity in a monetarized economy. American Behavioral Scientist.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. In SAGE Publications.

Crutchfield, R. D., Drakulich, K., Groninger, H., & Wadsworth, T. (2006). Labor Force Participation, Labor Markets, and Crime, Final Report. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, May 2006, 110 Pp.

Crutchfield, R. D., & Pitchford, S. R. (1997). Work and Crime: The Effects of Labor Stratification. Social Forces.

Cui, Z., & Hazra, D. (2017). Macroeconomic Determinants of Crime: Evidence from India. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Dhakal, C. P. (2018). Interpreting the basic outputs (SPSS) of multiple linear regression. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR).

Draca, M., & Machin, S. (2015). Crime and Economic Incentives. Annual Review of Economics.

Ehrlich, I. (1973). Participation in Illegitimate Activities: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation. Journal of Political Economy.

Engelhardt, B., Rocheteau, G., & Rupert, P. (2008). Crime and the labor market: A search model with optimal contracts. Journal of Public Economics.

Fajnzylber, P., Lederman, D., & Loayza, N. (2002). Inequality and violent crime. Journal of Law and Economics.

Frieman, J., Saucier, D. A., & Miller, S. S. (2022). Multiple Regression and Beyond. In Principles & Methods of Statistical Analysis.

Greene, W. H. (2013). Econometric Analysis. Fifth Edition. In Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling.

Gustavsson, M., & Österholm, P. (2012). Labor-force participation rates and the informational value of unemployment rates: Evidence from disaggregated US data. Economics Letters.

Harun, N. H., Shaari, M. S., & Tunku Ahmad, T. S. (2021). The Relationship between Female Labour Force Participation and Violent Crime in Malaysia: An ARDL Approach. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences.

Hosseini, S. M., Saifoddin, A., Shirmohammadi, R., & Aslani, A. (2019). Forecasting of CO2 emissions in Iran based on time series and regression analysis. Energy Reports.

Hu, T., Zhu, X., Duan, L., & Guo, W. (2018). Urban crime prediction based on spatiotemporal Bayesian model. PLoS ONE.

Jonathan, O. E., Olusola, A. J., Bernadin, T. C. A., & Inoussa, T. M. (2021). Impacts of Crime on Socio-Economic Development. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences.

Lee, K. (2018). Unemployment and crime: the role of apprehension. European Journal of Law and Economics.

Lodhi, A. Q., & Tilly, C. (1973). Urbanization, Crime, and Collective Violence in 19th-Century France. American Journal of Sociology.

Lundqvist, F. (2018). Unemployment and crime. Retrieved from

Malik, A. A., (2016). Urbanization and Crime: A Relational Analysis. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS).

Moore, A. W., Anderson, B., Das, K., & Wong, W. K. (2006). Combining Multiple Signals for Biosurveillance. In Handbook of Biosurveillance.

Moran, T. P. (2020). More Money, More Crime: Prosperity and Rising Crime in Latin America. Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews.

Owusu, G., Wrigley-Asante, C., Oteng-Ababio, M., & Yaa Owusu, A. (2015). Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) and built-environmental manifestations in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana. Crime Prevention and Community Safety.

Paredes, O. T. (2002). Capital, Coercion, and Crime: Bossism in the Philippines, John T. Sidel. Moussons.

Peace Corp. (n.d.). Crime, Harassment, and Early Termination of Service Data. Retrieved from

Perreault, K. (2011). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Manual Therapy, 16(1), 103.

Philippine Statistics Authority. (2013). Defense, Crime and Delinquency. Philippine Statistics Authority.

Philippine Statistics Authority. (2022). The Philippine Statistics Authority releases the Seasonally Adjusted National Accounts Publication covering the period Q1 2019 to Q1 2022. Philippine Statistics Authority.

Pilapil-Añasco, C., & C. Lizada, J. (2014). Philippine Tourism: Evolution towards Sustainability. SHS Web of Conferences.

Plaza, P. P. (2020). Ease of doing business in the Philippines. Retrieved from Asia Business Law Journal - ACCRALAW:

Plotnikov, D. (2021). Crime and Output: Theory and Application to the Northern Triangle of Central America. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Qi, Z. (2020). Rural to urban migration, crime, and sentencing disparities in Guangdong, China. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice.

Tayebi, M. A., Glässer, U., Ester, M., & Brantingham, P. L. (2016). Personalized crime location prediction. European Journal of Applied Mathematics.

Thapa, A. (2022). Crime, Crisis, and Economic Growth: An Investigation of Socio Economic Determinants of Crimes in the Indian States. Retrieved from

The Economist. (2011). Falling together the relationship between crime and GDP in America. The Economist online.

Thotakura, S. (2011). Crime: A Conceptual Understanding. Indian Journal of Applied Research.

Torres, R. C., & Mollick, A. V. (2018). The Impact of Crime and Other Economic Forces on Mexico's Foreign Direct Investment Inflows. Banco de México.

UNOWA. (2007). Urbanization and Insecurity in West Africa Population Movements, Mega Cities and Regional Stability. Dakar: UNOWA.

Violeta Achim, M., Nicolae Borlea, S., Ligia Văidean, V., Remus Florescu, D., Ramona Mara, E., & Constantin Cuceu, I. (2021). Economic and Financial Crimes and the Development of Society. In Improving Quality of Life - Exploring Standard of Living, Wellbeing, and Community Development.

Wang, F., & Minor, W. W. (2002). Where the jobs are: Employment access and crime patterns in Cleveland. In Annals of the Association of American Geographers.

Wijaya, W. A. (2021). The Effect of CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Coal Consumption on Gross Domestic Product per Capita in Indonesia. AFEBI Economic and Finance Review.

World Bank. (2021). Foreign direct investment, net inflows (% of GDP) - Philippines | Data. World Bank.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Leomar M. Sabroso, Cathy Cadusale, Eulalio C. Patayon

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2017 - 2023. European Journal Of Political Science Studies (ISSN 2601-2766) is a registered trademark. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


Hit counter