COMMUNAL VIOLENCE AND THE EXTREMITY OF POVERTY AMONG RURAL FARMERS IN THE NORTH – CENTRAL REGION OF NIGERIA

Godwin Aondongu Akpehe, Ebi Rhoda Dewua, A. Judith Mase, Luther Timin

Abstract


The increasing spate of communal violence in North – Central region of Nigeria has taken a very high toll on lives and livelihoods and had displaced several people. These resultantly had exacerbated the level of vulnerability, food/economic insecurity, destitution, extreme deprivation and misery in the region especially among the rural farmers thereby exposing them to extreme poverty. This paper focuses therefore on examining the effects of communal violence on rural poverty, the extent to which communal violence has extremely impoverished the rural populace in the North – Central region of Nigeria and ways of minimising its spate. Data for the study was sourced from 405 respondents across the region using questionnaire method. Findings of the study identified the effects of communal violence to include: wanton destruction of human lives, property and other sources of livelihood, psychological trauma, food and health insecurity as well as displacement of small – holder rural farmers, making their living standards miserable and deplorable thereby increasing very extremely the rate of poverty in the area by 85 per cent. The paper therefore recommends immediate trial of perpetrators of violence, conflict management and peace studies and poverty alleviation as actionable solutions.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


communal, violence, poverty, rural, North - Central

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akpehe, G. A. (2015). A Study of the Role of Informal Financial Institutions in Poverty Reduction among the Tiv People of Benue State. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis Submitted to the Department of Sociology, Benue State University, Makurdi.

Akpehe, G. A., Akor, D. N., Mase, J. A. & Igbudu, J. T. (2020). Communal Violence and the Health Security of Rural Women in Benue State – Nigeria. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Innovation.

Akpehe, G. A., Kwaghga, L. A. & Akpehe, L. P. (2018). Open grazing, Food and Health Insecurity in the Benue Valley Region of Nigeria. Mkar Journal of Sociology Vol.4(1)

Albert, I. O. (2001). Introduction to Third-Party Intervention in Community Conflicts, Ibadan: John Archers Publishers Ltd.

Alimba, N. C. (2014). Probing the Dynamic of Communal Conflict in Northern Nigeria. African Research Review. An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia; Vol. 8(1). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v8i1.13.

Angya, C. A. and Doki, G. A. (2006). Women Participation/Involvement in Conflict Management in Benue State: A Review, In Gyuse T. T. & Ajene, O. (eds), Conflicts in the Benue Valley. Makurdi: Benue State University Press.

Best S. G. (2006). The Political Dimensions of Conflicts in the Benue Valley. In Alimba, N. C. Probing the Dynamic of Communal Conflict in Northern Nigeria. African Research Review. An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia; Vol. 8(1).

Cramer, C. (2009). Violent conflict and the very poorest. Chronic Poverty Research Centre. Working Paper December 2009 No. 129.

Dzurgba, A. (2006). Prevention and management of conflict. In honour of Prof. Segun Odunuga. Ibadan: Loud Books Publishers. Ekeh, R.C. (1999). Nigeria: Aguleri-Umuleri conflict-the theatre of fratricidal war. Published by Searching for Peace in African.

Financial Times (2019). Nigeria faces rising violence in 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.ft.com/content/c8e3d26a-140d-11e9-a581-4ff78404524e

Horowitz, D. L. (2000). The Deadly Ethnic Riot. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA.

Human Rights Watch (HRW) (2014). Nigeria: Escalating Communal Violence. Hundreds Killed Since December in North Central Region, April, 15.

IOM (2011). Social and Economic Costs of Violence: Workshop Summary. The National Academies Press, Washington. www.nap.edu

Justino, P. (2007). On the Links between Violent Conflict and Household Poverty: How Much Do We Really Know? SSRN Electronic Journal, DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.1116265

MacQueen, K. M., McLellan, E., Metzger, D. S., Kegeles, S. Strauss, R. P., Scotti, R. Blanchard, L. and Trotter, R. T. (2001). What Is Community? An Evidence-Based Definition for Participatory Public Health. American Journal of Public Health 91(12).

Mayowa, J. F., & Omojola, A. S. (2005). Climate Change, Human Security and Communal Clashes in Nigeria. An International Workshop. Centre for the Study of Civil War, International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO) & Centre for International Environmental and Climate Research at the University of Oslo (CICERO) for the Global Environmental Change and Human Security Program (GECHS).

Mayowa, O. A. (2001). State and ethno-communal violence in Nigeria: A case of Ife – Modakeke. African dev xxvi. No 1 & 2.

National Bureau of Statistics (2017). Demographic Statistics Bulletin, May, 2017.

Obadan, M. (2000). Poverty reduction in Nigeria: The Way Forward. CBN Economic and Financial Review. 39(4).

Oboh, V. U. & Hyande, A. (2006), Impact of Communal Conflicts on Agricultural Production in Oye Community of Oju LGA in Benue State, In Gyuse T.T. and Ajene, O.(eds.), Conflicts in the Benue Valley, Makurdi: Benue State University Press.

Oji, R. O., Ime, O. I., and Nwoba, H. A. (2015). Human Cost of Communal Conflicts in Nigeria: a Case of Ezillo and Ezza-Ezillo Conflicts of Ebonyi State, (2008-2010). Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review (OMAN Chapter) Vol. 4(6).

Onwudiwe, E. (2004). Communal violence and the future of Nigeria. Global Dialogue, 6(3-4).

Varvar, T. A. (2000). Conflict Negotiation and Resolution: the way out of Communal Crises in Tiv Land. In Bur, A. (ed), Communal Relation: Conflict and Crises Management Strategies, Makurdi: Aboki.

Wikipedia (2016). Communal Violence. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Communal_violence&oldid=633524301

World Bank. (2001). Attacking poverty. World Development Report 2000/2001. New York, Oxford University Press.

Yecho, J. I. (2006), An Overview of the Tiv-Jukun Crisis, In Gyuse T.T. & Ajene, O.(eds.), Conflicts in the Benue Valley, Makurdi: Benue State University Press.

Yusuf, N., Ajaiya, G. & Ajaiya, M. (2009). Informal financial institutions and poverty reduction in the informal sector of Offa Town, Kwara State: A case study of rotating saving and credit associations. Journal of Social Science, 20(1):71-81.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejsss.v6i3.1048

Copyright (c) 2021 Godwin Aondongu Akpehe, Ebi Rhoda Dewua, A. Judith Mase, Timin, Luther

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2015 - 2018. European Journal Of Social Sciences Studies (ISSN 2501-8590) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


 

Hit counter