Leo O. Obinna, Felix C. Nzeako


The study was conducted in Abia State, Nigeria. A sample size of 240 respondents generated through purposive and multi–stage sampling procedures. Data were realized using structured questionnaire and they were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Spearman’s correlation co-efficient. About 62.5 %, 37.5 % and 64.4 % of the respondents were males, females and literates respectively. Means of 46.5 years, 8.5 persons and ₦31,458.00 respectively were recorded for age, household size, and monthly income respectively. Stepping on sharp objects (X = 3.08), cuts/ wounds from implements / tools (X = 3.38), insects bit/ stings (X = 3.25), sun – burns (X = 3.58), and poisoning from chemicals (X = 3.58) respectively were identified as the common farm- safety- risks and hazards in the study area. Avoidance of fatigue(X = 3.38), wearing of hats/ caps (X = 2.58), always armed with machetes (X = 3.2), protective clothing (X = 2.92), rain / jungle boots (X = 2.92), and experts handling chemical application(X = 2.58), among others were identified as preventive measures employed by the cocoa farmers. Results equally, revealed that the following agro – chemicals: mirex (X = 2.63), primegram (X = 3.50), galex (X = 3.58), glamozone (X = 3.63), karate (X = 3.00), furandan (X = 3.50), primextra (X = 3.38)   and copper sulfate (X = 3.25), among others were still in use by cocoa farmers in the study area. About 79.9 % of the respondents indicated that the following operations in cocoa production in the study area still involved the use of child – labor: harvesting, weeding, transportation, planting, harvesting and fertilizer application respectively. The study therefore, recommends that government agencies and stake holders charged with monitoring and enforcement of banned chemicals in Nigeria, mostly in the study area should step-up activities mostly now that the protection of environment is a very topical issue in the world.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


farm safety-risks and hazards, agro–chemicals in cocoa production, child-labour in cocoa production, Abia State, Nigeria


Abia – ADP (2006). Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP), Annual Report 2001 – 2006 pp 1 – 52.

Ajayi, A. O (2006) A Study on occupational Safety Practices among Rural Farmers in Ile – Ife Area of Osun State, Nigeria: an Emphasis on relevant Training Needs. Research Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 2 (5): 227 – 235, 2006.

Asamu, F. F (2005) Poverty and Child Labor in Nigeria: Challenges for Youth Dev. In the 21st Century. A paper presented to the Int. Conference on Challenges of Hum. Dev. In 21st Century Africa Covenant University Otta, Nigeria June, 27 – 30.

Ekong, E. E. 2010. Rural Sociology; An Introduction and Analysis of Rural Nigeria. ThirdEdition, Pp 1 – 548. Dove Educational Publishers, Uyo, Nigeria.

Ijere, M. O. and A. J. Mbanasor (1998) “Modern Organization and Management of Women Co-operatives” Alphabet Nigerian Publishers Mbasi Rd. Owerri, Nigeria Pp 136.

International Labour Organization (ILO) (2000): CIS Safety and Health in Agriculture Special Supplement pp: 152.

Obinna, Leo. O. and G. O. Chukwu (2015) Culture and Agricultural Development in Contemporary Issues in Agric. Extn. And Rural Development. Published Department of Rural Sociology and Extension. MOUAU, Abia State, Nigeria.

Okopido, I. T (2000) Environmental pollution: An emerging health hazard. The Nigerian Scenario, Lecture. Port Harcourt, Nigeria pp. 1 – 20

Tijani, A.A. (2006) Pesticide Use Practices and Safety Issues: The case of Cocoa Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. J. Hum. 19 (3) 183 – 190, 2006.

Udoh, A J. and Umoh, C. E (2011) “Utilization Pattern of Pesticides by Nigerian Farm Households. Indian Res. J. Ext. Edu. 11 (2). May, 2011.

Udoh, A. J. (1998); Safety research study in Nigeria Farm household hazards. Journal of Pesticides Trust; 40: 5 - 8


Copyright (c) 2018 Leo O. Obinna, Felix C. Nzeako

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2016 - 2023. European Journal Of Social Sciences Studies (ISSN 2501-8590) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


Hit counter