DIFERENCIAS EN RASGOS DE PERSONALIDAD Y DESEMPEÑO NEUROPSICOLÓGICO EN ADULTOS CON DISTINTO ORDEN DE NACIMIENTO

Veronica Reyes-Meza, María Esther Flores-Sosa, Essy A. Trevilla-Sánchez, Karla Cruz-Sánchez, Hector Juan Pelayo-González

Abstract


El orden de nacimiento se ha relacionado con diferencias conductuales y fisiológicas entre hermanos. Una de los fenómenos más estudiados es su relación con las diferencias en personalidad. Se ha reportado que los primogénitos tienden a ser más reflexivos, rutinarios, obedientes, organizados y perseverantes en sus metas; en contraste, en los hijos últimos predomina una personalidad más espontánea, flexible, impulsiva y desafiante. Sin embargo existen investigaciones que no respaldan estos hallazgos, señalando que los efectos reportados se deben a limitaciones metodológicas en los instrumentos utilizados (cuestionarios autoaplicables). Es necesario evaluar los rasgos de personalidad a través de pruebas menos sujetas al nivel de pretension de los individuos evaluados. En este trabajo se propone evaluar las funciones ejecutivas relacionadas con los rasgos de personalidad descritos. Evaluamos a estudiantes universitarios, 35 primogénitos y 35 hijos últimos, utilizando tareas neuropsicológicas que miden la inhibición conductual y otras funciones ejecutivas asociadas a las características de la personalidad descritas para primogénitos e hijos últimos. Los resultados muestran diferencias significativas; los primogénitos puntuan más alto en áreas como control inhibitorio, y evitación del riesgo pero no tareas de flexibilidad cognitiva ni en habilidades de planificación. Estos hallazgos confirman la presencia de algunos rasgos de personalidad descritos en la literatura del orden de nacimeinto. Sin embargo se recomienda que estudios futuros incluyan otras mediciones neuropsicológicas y psicofisiológicas. 

 

Within siblings, birth order is a condition associated with physiological and behavioral differences. One of the most studied topics is its relationship with differences in personality. It has been reported that firstborns tend to behave more thoughtful, obedient and with better organization in achieving their goals; in contrast, in lastborn prevails a more spontaneous, impulsive, and defiant personality. However, other studies affirm that this relation is an artefact due to methodological limitations and the instruments. It is necessary to test personality traits using probes less dependent of how individual want to be seen. Thus, in this research, we tested 35 firstborn and 35 lastborn undergraduate students using tasks that measure behavioral inhibition and other executive functions related to personality traits. We found significant differences; firstborns scored higher in inhibitory control and risk avoidance, but there was no difference in cognitive flexibility nor in planning. Findings correspond with some personality traits described in literature of birth order. However, future studies should include other kind of neuropsychological and psychophysiologycal measures.

 

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personalidad, hermanos, inhibición, funciones ejecutivas / personality, siblings, inhibition, executive functions

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejsss.v0i0.401

Copyright (c) 2018 Veronica Reyes-Meza, María Esther Flores-Sosa, Essy A. Trevilla-Sánchez, Karla Cruz-Sánchez, Hector Juan Pelayo-González

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