Ojochenemi Idoko, Azilah Kasim


The increasing threat from excessive consumption of environmental resources is one of the leading factors responsible for environmental problems like deforestation, biodiversity reduction, ozone layer depletion, climate change, and global warming. Unfortunately, the hotel sub-sector of the tourism and hospitality industry is complicit in this regard. Previous studies have concentrated mainly on the environmental impact of hotel activities. Most studies on the environmentally friendly practice of hotels appear to be focusing on the developed countries like the USA and the UK. A few developing countries in Asia continent like Malaysia, China, Thailand, Singapore, and Macao have also come under the limelight in recent times. But little is known about the involvement of Nigerian transnational hotels in biodiversity conservation regardless of the repeated calls for sustainability in the industry. This study attempts to explore how transnational hotel in Nigeria engage in biodiversity conservation. To accomplish this, data was collected through the in-depth interview from among the managerial staff in five transnational hotels in Lagos, Nigeria. Additionally, seven senior staff were purposively selected from among the regulatory and non-regulatory stakeholder of the hotel in Lagos state in order to have a balanced view on the study. NVivo 10 computer software was used to run a thematic analysis based on the transcribed interview data. It was revealed that only three of the hotels practices biodiversity conservation. Based on the findings, the studies recommend that necessary policies be implemented by the relevant stakeholder to encourage environmentally friendly initiatives regarding biodiversity conservation. Also, the need for training and awareness creation regarding environmentally-friendly practices in the hotel as well as general environmental protection and management was advocated.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



biodiversity conservation, environmentally friendly practice, and Nigerian transnational hotels in Lagos

Full Text:



Abaeian, V., Yeoh, K.K., & Khong, K.W. (2014). An Exploration of CSR Initiatives Undertaken by Malaysian Hotels: Underlying Motivations from a Managerial Perspective. Procedia -Social and Behavioral Sciences, 144, 423–432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.312

Alan Bryman, Baker, S.E., Edwards, R., Belk, R., Bryman, a Flick, U., Hay, T. (2007). Handbook of qualitative research methods in marketing. Qualitative Research Journal, 41(1), 295–312. https://doi.org/10.1159/000105503

Alvarez Gil, M. J., J. Burgos Jimenez, et al. (2001). "An analysis of environmental management, organizational context, and performance of Spanish hotels." Omega. The International Journal of Management Science, 29, 457–471.

Babbie, E.R. & Mounton, J. (2001). The Practice of Social Research (8th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Barberán, R., Egea, P., Gracia-de-Rentería, P., & Salvador, M. (2013). Evaluation of water saving measures in hotels: A Spanish case study. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34(1), 181–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.02.005

Baughn, C.C.; Bodie, N.L.; McIntosh, J.C. (2007). Corporate social and environmental responsibility in Asian countries and other geographical regions. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 14, 189–205.

Bohdanowicz-Godfrey, P. and Zientara, P. (2014). Environmental Performance Assessment Systems in the hotel Industry. International Business and Global Economy, Published by the Institute of International Business, 33, 743–755.

Bohdanowicz, P., Zientara, P., & Novotna, E. (2011). International hotel chains and environmental protection: an analysis of Hilton’s we care! Programme (Europe, 2006 – 2008). Journal of Sustainable Tourism, (February 2015), 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2010.549566

Carroll, A. (2000). A commentary and an overview of key questions on corporate social performance measurement. Business and Society, 39(4), 466–478.

Cespedes Lorente, J.J., J. Burgos Jimenez, et al. (2003). “Stakeholders’’ Environmental Influence: An Empirical Analysis in the Spanish Hotel Industry.” ”Scandinavian Journal of Management. 19, 333–358.

Chen, Y.C., & Chen, Y.T. (2012). The Advantages of Green Management for Hotel Competitiveness in Taiwan: From the Viewpoint of Senior Hotel Managers. Journal of Management and Sustainability, 2(2), 211–218. https://doi.org/10.5539/jms.v2n2p211

Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. (1999). Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria [Nigeria], Act No. 24, 5 May 1999. Retrieved October 16, 2018, from http://www.refworld.org/docid/44e344fa4.htm

Coopers and Lybrand. (1993). Business and the Environment: An Executive Guide. Sydney, Australia: Coopers & Lybrand Inc.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods Approaches. (Forth edit). Sage publications, Inc. Los Angeles, USA.

Deraman, F., Ismail, N., Mod Arifin, A. I., & Mostafa, M.I.A. (2017). Green practices in the hotel industry: Factors influencing the implementation. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality & Culinary Arts Journal of Tourism, Hospitality & Culinary Arts (JTHCA), 9(92), 305–316. Retrieved from http://ir.uitm.edu.my/19482/7/aj_fauziah deraman jthca b 17.pdf

Dodds, R. and Kuehnel, J. (2010). CSR among Canadian mass tour operators: good awareness but little action. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 22(2), 221–244.

Dowling, J., & Pfeffer, J. (1975). Organizational legitimacy societal values and organizational behavior. Pacific Sociological Review, 18(1), 122–136.

Federal Republic of Nigeria, official gazette. (2009). National Environmental (sanitation and waste control) Regulations (96 No. 60). Abuja.

Gatt, K., & Schranz, C. (2015). Retrofitting a 3-star hotel as a basis for piloting water minimization interventions in the hospitality sector. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 50, 115–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2015.06.008

Gössling, S. (2015). New performance indicators for water management in tourism. Tourism Management, 46, 233–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.06.018

Grimes, S., Bouchair, A., Tebbouche, H. (2017). Sustainability of the Expansion Areas for Coastal Touristic Sites “E.A.C.T.S” Such as the case of El-Aouana in Algeria: Indicators for considering biodiversity. Energy Procedia, 119, 170–181. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.07.066

Han, H., Yoon, H. (2015). Hotel customers' environmentally responsible behavioral intention: impact of key constructs on the decision in green consumerism. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 45, 22–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.11.004

Heish, Y.C. (2012). "Hotel companies' environmental policies and practices: a content analysis of their web pages". International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(1), 97–121.

Holcomb, J.L., & Smith, S. (2017). Hotel general managers’ perceptions of CSR culture: A research note. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 17(4), 434–449. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1177/1467358415619669

International Union for Conservation of Nature. (2012). Building and operating biodiversity-friendly hotels in the Caribbean. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. Retrieved from https://portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/2012-014.pdf

Jamali, D. (2014). CSR in Developing Countries through an Institutional Lens. Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability: Emerging Trends in Developing Economies. 8, 21–44. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2043-905920140000008005

Kasim, A. (2006). The need for business environmental and social responsibility in the tourism industry. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 7(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1300/J149v07n01

Kasim, A. & Scarlat, C. (2007). Business environmental responsibility in the hospitality industry. Management, 2(1), 5–23.

The Lagos State of Nigeria. (2017). A law to consolidate all laws relating to the environment for the management, protection and sustainable development of the environment in Lagos state and for connected purposes. Retrieved October 11, 2018, from https://www.scribd.com/document/371769412/Lagos-State- Environmental-Management-and-Protection-Law-2017

Levine, J.H. (1996). Introduction to data analysis: The rules of evidence1 (Levine, J, Vol. 1). Macintosh. Retrieved from https://qss.dartmouth.edu/sites/qss.dartmouth.edu/files/Volumes_1-2.pdf

Levy, S.E., & Park, S.-Y. (2011). An Analysis of CSR Activities in the Lodging Industry. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management. https://doi.org/10.1375/jhtm.18.1.147

Mader, K. (2012). Corporate Social Responsibility in Tanzania: An Overview. Dares Salaam, Tanzania: CSR advisor and certified sustainability, Dar es Salaam. Retrieved from https://csroverviewtanzania.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/csr- overview-tanzania3.pdf

McWilliams, A; Siegel, D. (2000). Corporate social responsibility and financial performance: Correlation or misspecification? Strategic Management Journal, 21(5), 603–609.

Mensah, I., Cecil, B. (2018). Environmental Management Practices in US Hotels. School of Hospitality Administration, Georgia State University. Retrieved from https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/32719394/environmental_m anagement_practices_in_us_hotels2.pdf?awsaccesskeyid=akiaiwowyygz2y53ul3 a&expires=1538219263&signature=yxvv8c%2bw3hovmjzg21bfzn7cwyw%3d&res ponse-content-disposition=inline%3bfilename

Mensah, I. (2006). Environmental management practices among hotels in the great Accra region. Hospitality Management, 25, 414–431.

Neuman, W.L. (2003). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (5th ed.). Boston, USA: Allyn and Bacon.

Orie, E.G. (2018). Sustainable Wetlands and Biodiversity Conservation. Biodiversity, 25, 11–35. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.9774/gleaf.9780203704066

Patton, M.Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and Research Methods. Sage Publications, Newbury Park.

Rahman, I., & Reynolds, D. (2016). Predicting green hotel behavioral intentions using a theory of environmental commitment and sacrifice for the environment. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 52, 107–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJHM.2015.09.007

Rivera, J. (2002). “Assessing a Voluntary Environmental Initiative in the Developing World: The Costa Rican Certification for Sustainable Tourism.” Policy Sciences, 35, 333–360.

Samy, M., Ogiri, H.I., & Bampton, R. (2015). Examining the public policy perspective of CSR implementation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Social Responsibility Journal, 11(3), 553–572. https://doi.org/10.1108/SRJ-02-2013-0009

Sardianou, E., Stauropoulou, A., & Kostakis, I. (2017). Analyzing Consumers’ Awareness towards CSR, Focusing on Environmental Management. Environmental Management and Sustainable Development, 6(2), 51. https://doi.org/10.5296/emsd.v6i2.10983

Shangri-La hotels. (2016). Shangri-La Asia Limited Annual Report 2015. Retrieved June 25, 2018, from http://www.hkexnews.hk/listedco/listconews/sehk/2016/0426/LTN20160426614.p df

Shangri-La Hotels. (2018). Shangri-La Hotels get buzz-y on national honey bee day. Retrieved October 22, 2018, from https://www.shangri-la- sustainability.com/single-post/2018/10/11/Shangri-La-Hotels-Get-Buzz-y-On- National-Honey-Bee-Day

Sharma, A., & Kiran, R. (2013). Corporate Social Responsibility: Driving Forces and Challenges. International Journal of Business Research and Development, 2(1), 18–27.

Sucheran, R. (2016). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the hotel and lodge sector in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 5(3), 1–17.

Suchman, M. (1995). Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 57l–610.

United Nations. (2007). Conservation, sustainable use of biodiversity essential for adapting to climate change. Retrieved November 19, 2018, from https://www.un.org/press/en/2007/sgsm10994.doc.htm

United Nations. (2016).The Sustainable Development Agenda. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/development-agenda [Accessed 2017-05-12).

United Nations Global Compact. (2012). The Ten Principles of the UN Global Compact. Retrieved from http://www.unglobalcompact.org/AboutTheGC/TheTenPrinciples/index.html%0 Accessed on the 18th May, 2017.

Wan, Y.K.P., Chan, S.H.J., & Huang, H.L.W. (2017a). Environmental awareness, initiatives, and performance in the hotel industry of Macau. Tourism Review, 72(1), 87–103. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-06-2016-0016.

Wells, V.K., Gregory Smith, D., Taheri, B., Manika, D., & McCowlen, C. (2016). An exploration of CSR development in heritage tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 58, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2016.01.007

World Tourism Organization and the United Nations Development Programme. (2017). Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals – Journey to 2030. https://doi.org/10.18111/9789284419340

Copyright (c) 2019 Ojochenemi Idoko, Azilah Kasim

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2015 - 2018. European Journal Of Social Sciences Studies (ISSN 2501-8590) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


Hit counter