Ekundayo Aduke


Nigerian independence has spanned through 57 years (from October 1, 1960). Of these 57 years the military have ruled for over 32 years. It was expected that the new state of Nigeria in due course would develop public institutions and out of their multiple ethnic communities and diverse cultural groups would emerge the spirit of the nation. Unfortunately, however, at independence, the British not only handed over leadership to a class of educated elite, but also handed over a regionalized, ethnic based administration. So, the emergence of a 3-region structure for Nigeria at independence had implications for nation building. A conscious policy or plan of making Nigeria a nation definitely includes putting in place a set of cultural values and practices for all those referred to as Nigerians. But the question is, did the military in its lengthy years of rule ever have the ambition or dream of building a nation? This paper contends that the military rule is a dictatorship rule which in itself produced all kind of challenges to nation building. These challenges include; the challenge of power- sharing; the challenge of unequal socio-economic development, intergroup tensions and conflicts among others. The paper concludes that nation building is a task for all and sundry; military as well as civilian administration.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



military, challenges, nation-building, Nigeria

Full Text:



Abdulrahman, A. A., 2014. “The Impact of the Military on Nigeria’s Nations building, 1966 – 1979” Historical Research Letter 15: 17 – 22 Retrieved 18/5/18.

Achebe, C., cited in Gambari. I. A., 2008. “The Challenges of Nation Building: The Case of Nigeria” Lecture delivered at the First Anniversary of Mustapha Akanbi Foundation, Abuja 7/2/2008. retrieved on 17/5/18.

Agbowu, D. A., 2000. Nigeria: The Truth, Censuses, Elections, Revenue Allocations and the Way forward. Greenville, Delaware, Bajot Publishers, 205.

Ake, C., 1981. A Political Economy of Africa: London, Addison-Wesley Longman Ltd.

Aluko, F. S., 2005. “The State, Ethnic Politics and National Political Reforms Conference in Nigeria” in Alli, W. O. (ed) Political Reform Conference; Federalism and the National Question in Nigeria, Nigeria political Association, 34.

Coleman, J. S., 1958. Nigeria; A background to Nationalism. Bekerly, University of California Press, 45 – 46.

David, B. G., 1970 (ed): Webster’s New World Dictionary, Vol II, New York, The World Publishing Company, 946.

Ehimika, I., 2003. “Ethnicity, Differential Citizenship and the problem of Nation building” in Olaniyan, R. A. 2003. (ed): The Amalgamation and its Enemies…. 167 – 182.

Elaigwu, J., 2005. Nigeria: Yesterday and Today for Tomorrow: Essay in Governance and Society. Jos, Alpha Publishing House, 384.

Eminue, O., 2006. Military in Politics, Uyo; Soulmate Press and Publishers.

Eshikena, J., 2012. Nigerian Government and Politics, Lagos: Fortan Press Ltd.

Fawole, W. A., 2003. “The Military Rule and The Unitarianization of Nigeria” in R. A. Olaniyan (ed). The Amalgamation and its Enemies: An Interpretative History of Modern Nigeria, Ile-Ife, Obafemi Awolowo University Press, 145 – 165.

Gambari, I. A., 2008. “The Challenges of Nation Building: Case of Nigeria” Lecture delivered at the First Anniversary of Mustapha Akanbi Foundation, Abuja 7/2/2008. retrieved on 17/5/18.

Ibuomo, S. L. and Ekundayo, A., 2017. “The Nigerian State, Deprivation and Demand for Resource Control in Niger Delta Region”. European Journal of Social Sciences studies, 2, Issue 8, 297 – 311.

Ikime, O., 2006. History, The Historian and the Nation; The Voice of a Nigerian Historian, Ibadan, Heinemann, 294.

Joseph, R., 1991. Democracy and Prebendal Politics in Nigeria; The Rise and Fall of the Second Republic, Ibadan, Spectrum Books Ltd.

Miners, N. T., 1971. The Nigerian Army, 1956 – 1966, London, Methuen, 2.

Olali, S. T. and Ekundayo, A., 2010. “The Niger Delta Travails and Insecurity: Implications on National Stability” in Ashafa, A. M.: Challenges for Nigeria at 50: Essay in Honour of Professor Abdullahi Mahadi. Kaduna, Kaduna State University Press, 439 – 454.

Oyediran, O., 1996. (ed): Governance and Development in Nigeria; Essay in In Favour of Professor Billy. J. Dudley, Ibadan, Oyediran Consult International.

Pye, L., 1962. Aspects of Political Development, Boston, Little Brown.


Copyright (c) 2019 Ekundayo Aduke

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2015 - 2018. European Journal Of Social Sciences Studies (ISSN 2501-8590) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


Hit counter