THE DIGITAL SKILLS CRISIS: ENGENDERING TECHNOLOGY–EMPOWERING WOMEN IN CYBERSPACE

Irene Kamberidou, Nancy Pascall

Abstract


This paper examines the latest research on the digital skills crisis, focusing on the factors that contribute to digital exclusion. Through an extensive analysis of current literature on the digital divide, the authors discuss digital skills gaps, namely the exclusion of a sizeable part of the workforce from the digital market economy—and women in particular. Studies indicate that exclusion from the digital market is augmented and reinforced when combining the gender dimension with other exclusionary factors such as disability, age, race and socioeconomic background. Research confirms that the gender imbalance in ICT and related sectors persists today, despite decades of equal opportunity policies, legislation and government initiatives. Women are still underrepresented and digitally excluded and efforts to attract, recruit and retain girls and women in ICT and STEM seem to be failing, reinforcing the gender gaps: participation gap, pay gap, and leadership gap, a result of the deep-rooted gender order reflected in the latest Global Gender Gap Report and Index. A growing body of research of the twenty-first shows that inspiring girls and women into technology—increasing the talent pool in ICT and STEM— requires engendering technology, eliminating gender stereotypes, and raising the profile of female role models and mentors. Studies repeatedly argue that engendering technology entails women’s agency and economic empowerment. Accordingly, the authors include recommendations from inspirational role models and mentors, three successful women in ICT, STEM and Information Society who have made a difference. All three, following a series of semi-structured interviews, propose engendering technology to increase the female talent pool in addition to engendering STEM education, that is to say, including the gender dimension.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


engendering technology, digital divide, digital exclusion, gender gaps, disability, age, skills gap, women entrepreneurs, leadership gap, digital inequality, gender devaluation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ashcraft, C.; McLain, B.; Eger, E. (2016). Women in Tech: the Facts 2016 update. See what’s changed and what hasn’t. National Center for Women & Information Technology (NCWIT). Retrieved from https://www.ncwit.org/sites/default/files/resources/ncwit_women-in-it_2016-full-report_final-web06012016.pdf (last accessed 14/1/2018)

Batliwala, S. & Reddy, A. (2003). Energy for women and women for energy (engendering energy and empowering women). Energy for Sustainable Development, vol. 7, issue 3: 33-43 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0973-0826(08)60363-4

Cedefop (2016), ‘The great divide: Digitalization and digital skill gaps in the EU workforce’, Cedefop European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, European Skills and Job Survey, #ESJsurvey Insights, No 9, pp. 1-16, Thessaloniki: Greece. Retrieved from http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/statistics-and-indicators/statistics-and-graphs/esjsurvey-insights-no-9 (last accessed 14/1/2018)

Carayannis, E. G & Stewart, M. R. (2013). Obsessed maniacs and clairvoyant oracles: empirically validated patterns of entrepreneurial behaviour Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship 2013, 2:2 doi:10.1186/2192-5372-2-2.

Carayannis E. G., Campbell D. F. J. (2018) Overview of Cyber-Development. In: Carayannis E., Campbell D., Efthymiopoulos M. (eds) Handbook of Cyber-Development, Cyber-Democracy, and Cyber-Defense. Springer, Cham https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09069-6_71

Carayannis, E. G., & Campbell, D. F. J. (2014). Developed democracies versus emerging autocracies: Arts, democracy, and innovation in quadruple helix innovation systems. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 3, 12. http://www.innovation-entrepreneurship.com/content/pdf/s13731-014-0012-2.pdf and http://www.innovation-entrepreneurship.com/content/3/1/12.

Carayannis, E. G., & Sipp, C. M. (2006). e-Development toward the knowledge economy. Leveraging technology, innovation and entrepreneurship for “Smart” development. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Deloitte (2016). Women in STEM, technology career pathways and the gender pay gap. Deloitte LLP. https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Digital-Inclusion/Women-and-Girls/Girls-in-ICT-Portal/Documents/deloitte-uk-women-in-stem-pay-gap-2016.pdf , Accessed 22 Jan 2018.

DESI (2017). The Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI). European Commission, Digital Single Market, policies. https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/desi , Accessed 14 Nov 2017.

Dickins, S. (13/3/2017). Female science and engineering 'talent waste' worry. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-39254984 , Accessed 21 Jan 2018.

Duke, S. (2018). Will AI make the gender gap in the workplace harder to close? World Economic Forum, Dec. 21, 2019: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/12/artificial-intelligence-ai-gender-gap-workplace/ (last access April 30, 2019)

Elliott, S. (2017), Computers and the Future of Skill Demand, Educational Research and Innovation, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264284395-en.

Everts S. (1998). Gender and technology: empowering women, engendering development. London: Zed Books https://www.popline.org/node/527965

Farrel, M. (2014). Engendering the Workplace: Gender Discrimination and Prevention of Sexual Harassment in Organisations. New York: Uppal Publishing House.

Farrel, M. (2016). Report: Workshop on Engendering Leadership in Organisations. Pria and Martha Farrel Foundation, New Delhi, pp. 1-27 http://www.marthafarrellfoundation.org/uploaded_files/pdf_files/1504678472_1501480420_Report_Dialogue_on_Engendering_Leadership_in_Organisations1.pdf

Foley P. (2004). Does the Internet help to overcome social exclusion? Electronic Journal of e-Government, 2 (2), 139-146. https://issuu.com/academic-conferences.org/docs/ejeg-volume2-issue2-article30?mode=a_p

House of Commons (2016). Digital skills crisis. Second Report of Session 2016–17. House of Commons Science and Technology Committee Report, printed 7 June 2016. Published on 13 June 2016 by authority of the House of Commons. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264284395-en https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201617/cmselect/cmsctech/270/270.pdf . Accessed 14 Nov 2017.

Kamberidou, I. (2013). Women entrepreneurs:‘we cannot have change unless we have men in the room’ Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 2: 6. Springer https://doi.org/10.1186/2192-5372-2-6

Kamberidou, I. & Labovas, M. (2012). Social Women Share: Technology as an Enabler. Reflections on Women in Entrepreneurship and ICT/ A Reader: We have the technology, we have no excuse (pp.62-78). Athens: Militos Emerging Technologies & Services. http://www.knowl.gr/readings/ladybizIT_final%20booklet.pdf, https://pergamos.lib.uoa.gr/uoa/dl/object/2337265

Kamberidou, I. & Fabry, E. (2012). Redefining Professional Success and Concepts of Excellence: Integrating a Gender Perspective. Reflections on Women in Entrepreneruship and ICT/ A reader: We have the Technology, we have no excuse (pp.10-27). Athens: Militos Emerging Technologies & Services. http://www.knowl.gr/readings/ladybizIT_final%20booklet.pdf, https://pergamos.lib.uoa.gr/uoa/dl/object/2337537

Kamberidou, I. (2011, June). Gender Devaluation and Gender Fatigue: Getting Women on the Glass Escalator. Presentation at the Digital Agenda Assembly, Every European Digital ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda, Workshop 22: Women for smart growth | Digital Agenda for Brussels, Belgium, pp. 1-11 https://pergamos.lib.uoa.gr/uoa/dl/object/2417982

Kamberidou, I. (2010). Strategies for Closing Three Major Gender Gaps: Participation Gap, Pay Gap and Leadership Gap. Fostering Gender Mainstreaming in the ICT Sector, E-Newsletter, 19 Nov. 2010 (pp.1-5). https://pergamos.lib.uoa.gr/uoa/dl/object/2417994 http://scholar.uoa.gr/ikamper/publications/strategies-closing-three-major-gender-gaps-participationengagement-gap-pay-gap

Kamberidou, Ι., Patsantaras, N., Pantouli, O., (2007). The anachronistic gender-science imbalance: technophobia and the technological gender gap in Greece. Proceedings of the ‘3rd International Conference on Interdisciplinarity in Education, ICIE ’07. The National Technical University of Athens. http://ikee.lib.auth.gr/record/298626, https://pergamos.lib.uoa.gr/uoa/dl/object/2775401

Kamberidou, I. & Patsantaras, N. (2006). "Towards a Gender-Neutral Inclusive Information Society: Preserving the European Model in the Information Age." Presentation at the Women and Science Seminar: Women in the Information Society, 5/4/2006. CORDIS focus online edition, March 2006, Brussels (http://cordis.europa.eu/ist/directorate_g/seminar20060405.htm), https://pergamos.lib.uoa.gr/uoa/dl/object/2775555

Kamberidou, I. & Patsantaras N. (2004). "Absolute Exclusion-Today’s Digital Exiles". Presentation at eQuality Session Preparation Workshop, 15/10/04. Research Group Analysis Report of the Gender Expert Action Group (GEAG). European Commission, Information Society Directorate-General Miniaturisation, Embedded Systems, Societal Applications. https://pergamos.lib.uoa.gr/uoa/dl/object/2775596

Kiritsis, D., & Pantouli, O. (2016). Adolescent Attitudes towards professional/career orientation and their roles in the family. The gender dimension. In Malafantis, Papadopoulou, Auginidou, Iordanidis, Betsas (Eds.), Greek Pedagogy and Research in Education” (pp. 961-973). Athens: Diadrasi. [in Greek]

Kwolek-Folland, A. (1994) Engendering Business: Men and Women in the Corporate Office, 1870-1930. John Hopkins, University Press. ISBN: 9780801859489

Leep (2016). Digital Inclusion and The Digital Divide White Paper, December 2016, leep.ngo Imagine Tomorrow Together leep.ngo. https://leep.ngo/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Leep-White-Paper4.pdf . Accessed 12 Nov 2017.

Mims, C. (2017). "The First Women in Tech Didn't Leave—Men Pushed Them Out; In computing's early years, when it was considered women's work, all six programmers of America's first digital computer, Eniac, were women". The Wall Street Journal Online, 10 Dec 2017 13:00. Copyright 2017 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-first-women-in-tech-didnt-leavemen-pushed-them-out-1512907200

OECD (2016). Policy Brief on the Future of Work - OECD Skills for a Digital World, Dec. 2016, pp. 1-4 https://www.oecd.org/els/emp/Skills-for-a-Digital-World.pdf

OECD/ILO (2017), Better Use of Skills in the Workplace: Why It Matters for Productivity and Local Jobs, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264281394-en.

Pantouli, O. (2015). Narratives-life stories of Greek women scientists: their advancement in the fields of Physics, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology. Thessaloniki: Rome Publishers. [in Greek]

Pantouli, O., Zarifis, G., & Oliveira, A. (2014). Gender dimensions in Technology in Higher Education. Narratives of Portuguese and Greek women scientists in times of crisis. In K.D. Malafantis, E.P. Galanaki & A.I. Pamouktsoglou (eds) International Scientific Conference eRA-8, The SynEnergy Forum (Piraeus 23-25 Sept. 2013), 1253-1260. Athens: Hellenic Educational Society: http://www.pee.gr/?lang=en .

Pantouli, O. (2008). How female students in the field of education talk about computers. In Anna Chronaki (ed.) Mathematics, Technologies Education in the Gender Perspective, 99-102. Volos: University of Thessaly Press. ISBN/ISSN 978-960-8029-88-0 https://eige.europa.eu/hr/rdc/library/resource/GSGE20171018090833.0?lang=hr

Pascall, N. A. (2012). Engendering Technology, Empowering Women. London: Portia Ltd, Prince Consort House, Albert Embankment, United Kingdom. ISBN: 978-0-9566292-2-7 https://pure.uvt.nl/ws/portalfiles/portal/1465553/Pascall_engendering_19-11-2012.pdf

Pattanaik, D. (2005). Engendering knowledge networks: empowering women through ICT. Proceedings of the International symposium on Women and ICT: Creating global transformation, article 8, Morell, D. and Sanders, J. (eds), Baltimore, Maryland, June 12-14, 2005. ACM New York, NY. ISBN:1-59593-301-8

Raja, D.S. (2016). Bridging the Disability Divide through Digital Technologies, background paper by Deepti Samant Raja. In Digital Dividends world development report. World Bank Group. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/wdr2016 . Accessed 5 Feb 2019

SheSpeaks (2011). Why She Shares, SheSpeaks Inc. Dec. 12, 2011. Accessed 11 May 2019 http://www.shespeaks.com/pages/img/insightreports/SheSpeaks%20SheShares%20Study_04302012140512.pdf

Tuana, N. & Morgen, S. (eds.) (2001). Engendering Rationalities. State University of New York Press. ISBN 9780791450857

Turkle, S. (2011). Alone Together: Why we expect more from technology and less from each other. Basic Books. ISBN 9780465010219

Warschauer, M. (2003). Technology and Social Inclusion: Rethinking the Digital Divide. Cambridge, MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-23224-3

Woolley A, Malone T. (2011). Defend your research: what makes a team smarter? More women. Harvard business review. 2011. Accessed 9 May 2019 http://hbr.org/2011/06/defend-your-research-what-makes-a-team-smarter-more-women/ar/1

World Bank (2016). World Development Report 2016. Digital Dividends. A World Bank Group Flagship Report. Retrieved from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/896971468194972881/pdf/102725-PUB-Replacement-PUBLIC.pdf Accessed 25 January 2018

World Bank (2001). Engendering Development Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice. Co-publication of the World Bank and Oxford University Press © 2001 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, Washington, D.C. (Accessed May 4, 2019).

World Economic Forum (2018). The Global Gender Gap Report 2018. Insight Report. World Economic Forum, pp 1-367. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GGGR_2018.pdf

World Economic Forum Insight Report (2019). Innovate Europe, Competing for Global Innovation Leadership. World Economic Forum (WEF) Insight Report. In collaboration with McKinsey & Company. January 2019, pp. 1-44. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Innovate_Europe_Report_2019.pdf (last access March 4, 2019)




Copyright (c) 2019 Irene Kamberidou, Nancy Pascall

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2015 - 2018. European Journal Of Social Sciences Studies (ISSN 2501-8590) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


 

Hit counter