IDEA OF FREEDOM IN PHILOSOPHY IN THE CONTEXT OF NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE FREEDOMS / NEGATİF VE POZİTİF ÖZGÜRLÜKLER BAĞLAMINDA FELSEFEDE ÖZGÜRLÜK DÜŞÜNCESİ

Göksel Yıkmış

Abstract


In this article, I will explore the issue of whether it is coherent to say that one person has more freedom than another by considering negative and positive freedom traditions. First, I will briefly describe the notion of negative and positive freedom. Second, I will begin to make a connection between notions of liberty and one agent having more freedom than another. Third, I will outline the inadequacy of the negative tradition, and then I will discuss the necessity of positive tradition. It is concluded that some notion of positive liberty is needed to make coherent sense of the claim that persons can vary in degree of liberty. However, owing to social contract issues, I conclude that both conceptions are needed.

Bu çalışmada, bir kişinin diğerinden daha fazla özgürlüğe sahip olduğunu söylemenin tutarlı olup olmadığı, felsefedeki negatif ve pozitif özgürlük kavramları ele alınarak incelenmiştir. Bu bağlamda ilk olarak negatif ve pozitif özgürlük kavramları kısaca açıklanmıştır. Ardından, özgürlük kavramları ile bir kişinin diğerinden daha fazla özgürlüğe sahip olması arasında bir bağlantı kurulmuştur. Son olarak, felsefedeki negatif özgürlük kavramının neden yetersiz olduğunun ana hatları çizilmiş ve ardından pozitif geleneğin gerekliliği ele alınıp tartışılmıştır. Bu çalışmada, kişilerin özgürlük ve bağımsızlık derecesine göre çeşitlilik gösterebileceği iddiasını tutarlı bir şekilde anlamlandırmak için pozitif özgürlük kavramına ihtiyaç olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Bununla birlikte bu çalışmada, toplum sözleşmesi kavramında yer alan birtakım sorunlar nedeniyle, her iki özgürlük kavramın da özgürlük düşüncesi için gerekli olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır.

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Keywords


idea of freedom, freedom, negative freedom, positive freedom, liberty / özgürlük düşüncesi, özgürlük, negatif özgürlük, pozitif özgürlük, bağımsızlık

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References


Berlin, I. (1958). “Two Concepts of Liberty.” In Isaiah Berlin (1969) Four Essays on Liberty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Carter, I. (2012) "Positive and Negative Liberty", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2012/entries/liberty-positive-negative/

Garnett, M. (2007). Ignorance, incompetence, and the concept of liberty. Journal of Political Philosophy 15 (4), pp. 428-446.

Gaus, G., Courtland, S. D. and Schmidtz, D. (2015) "Liberalism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2015/entries/liberalism/

Gokalp, N. (2012). Philosophy education and human freedom. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, pp. 477-479.

Hobbes: Man is a wolf to man (2012). Retrieved from http://www.the-philosophy.com/hobbes-man-is-a-wolf-to-man (Accessed: 1 August 2020).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejsss.v5i5.910

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