Dieu Huong Phung, Nguyen Van Anh Le


This study focuses on understanding the obstacles encountered by senior students at FE-UFLS-UD when writing task 2 of the C1.2 End-of-Course Test, along with the factors contributing to these challenges and proposed remedies. Data was gathered from 42 students who studied in the C1.2 Writing subject and took the C1.2 End-of-Course Test. The study employed an open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interviews, the study employed thematic coding and qualitative methods to analyze the collected data, revealing the presence of affective, cognitive, and linguistic difficulties and their underlying causes. Based on these findings, the study offers recommendations to address these issues. Importantly, the research encourages students to utilize the insights gained from the study to enhance their study approaches and prepare for both the C1.2 End-of-Course Test and the VSTEP exam. Additionally, teachers can take the findings as guidance to assist students to improve their writing skills effectively.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


difficulties, writing task 2, the C1.2 End-of-Course Test, solutions, senior students.

Full Text:



Abu Rass, R. (2015). “Education Challenges Face Arab Students in Writing Well-Developed Paragraphs”, English Language Teaching, Vol. 8, No. 10.

Ackerman, J. (2006). Motivation for writing through blogs (Master of Arts Thesis). Graduate College, Bowling Green State University.

Adedokun, O. A., Parker, L. C., Henke, J. N., & Burgess, W. D. (2017). Student perceptions of a 21st century learning space. Journal of Learning Spaces, 6(1), 1-13. http://libjournal.uncg.edu/jls/article/view/1339.

Al-Eiadeh, A. R., Al-Sobh, M. A., Al-Zoubi, S. M., & Al-Khasawneh, F. (2016). Improving English language speaking skills of Ajloun National University students. International Journal of English and Education, 5(3), 181-195.

Alfares, N. (2017). Benefits and difficulties of learning in group work in EFL classes in Saudi Arabia. English Language Teaching, 10(7), 247-256. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n7p247

Akyol, H., & Aktaş, N. (2018). The relationship between fourth-grade primary school students’ story-writing skills and their motivation to write. Universal Journal of Educational Research,6(12), 2772-2779. Doi: 10.13189/ ujer.2018.061211.

Alfaki, M. (2015). University students’ English writing problems: Diagnosis and remedy. International Journal of English Language Teaching, 3(3), 40-52.

Al-Khairy, M. (2013). Saudi English-Major undergraduates' academic writing problems: A Taif University perspective. English Language Teaching, 6. Doi:10.5539/eltv6n6p1.

Arifin, E. Z. dan S. Amran Tasai (2009). Cermat Berbahasa Indonesia untuk Perguruan Tinggi. Jakarta: Akademika Pressindo.

Ağın-Haykır, H. (2012). The relationship between the skills of reading comprehension and writing of the 6th, 7th and the 8th grade students [Unpublished MA thesis]. Ahi Evran University.

Benson, P. (2013). Teaching and researching: Autonomy in language learning. Routledge.

Biemans, H. J., & Simons, P. R.-J. (1996). Contact-2: a computer-assisted instructional strategy for promoting conceptual change. Instructional Science, 24(2), 157-176.

Bitchener, J., & Basturkmen, H. (2006). Perceptions of the difficulties of postgraduate L2 thesis students writing the discussion section. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 5, 4-18.

Bjork, L. & Raisanen, C. (1997). Academic Writing: A University Writing Course. Student Literature.

Bộ Giáo dục và Đào tạo, Tài liệu “Hướng dẫn áp dụng Định dạng đề thi đánh giá năng lực sử dụng tiếng Anh từ bậc 3 đến bậc 5 theo Khung năng lực ngoại ngữ 6 bậc dùng cho Việt Nam trong việc xây dựng đề thi và chấm thi (Phê duyệt kèm theo Quyết định số: 730/QĐ-BGDĐT ngày 11 tháng 3 năm 2015 của Bộ trưởng Bộ Giáo dục và Đào tạo).

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.

Brody, S. (2001). Teaching reading language, letters & thought (2nd edition). Milford, NH: Larc Publishing.

Brookes, A., & Grundy, S. (2017). Motivation is the key element in acquiring writing skills. International Journal of Teaching and Education, 3(7), 31-24. https://doi.org/10.20472/ijte.2017.003.007

Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. New York: Pearson Education.

Can, G. (2009). A model for doctoral students’ perceptions and attitudes toward written feedback for academic writing (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Utah State University.

Cheng, C. M. (2007). Improving Interaction and Feedback with Computer Mediated Communication in Asian EFL Composition Classes: A Case Study, Taiwan J. TESOL,4(1),65–97, 2007.

Chou, L. (2011). An investigation of Taiwanese doctoral students' academic writing at a U.S. University. Higher Education Studies, 1(2), 47-60.

Coghill, Jeffrey and Stacy Magendanz (2003). English Grammar. New York: Wiley Publishing, Inc.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dang, T.H., Chau, T.H., & Tra, T.Q. (2020). A study on the difficulties in writing argumentative essays of English-majored sophomores at Tay Do University, Vietnam. Journal on English Language Teaching, 6.

Dang, T. B. D., Le, V. L., & Nguyen, K. (2022). Some common problems in writing essays of English majored sophomores at a university in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. European Journal of English Language Teaching, 7(3), 148.

Davies, Lawe (1998). Coherence in Tertiary Students’ Writing: Writers’ Skills and Readers Expectations, (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Western Australia).

Do, N. H. M., & Le, Q. T. (2023). Lexical Collocation Errors in Essay Writing: A Study into Vietnamese EFL Students and Their Perceptions. International Journal of Language Instruction, 2(2), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.54855/ijli.23221.

Elbow, P. (1973). Writing without teachers (pp.12–75). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

El Said, A. M. (2006). The Effect of Using a Programme Based on the Writing Workshop Approach on the Writing skills and on the writing Apprehension of the second year Preparatory Student. Unpublished MA.

Fanene, N. (2021). A study of the academic writing problems of New Zealand-born Samoan students in tertiary institutions. Auckland University of Technology.

Graham, S., Morphy, P., Harris, K. R., Fink-Chorzempa, B., Saddler, B., Moran, S., & Mason, L. (2008). Teaching spelling in the primary grades: A national survey of instructional practices and adaptations. American Educational Research Journal, 45, 796–825.

Grami, G. M. A. (2012). Online collaborative writing for ESL learners using blogs and feedback checklists. English Language Teaching, 5(10), 43–48. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v5n10p43.

Heaton, J. B. (1990). Writing English Language Test. Longman.

Heaton, J. B. 1975. Writing English Language Test. London: Longman Group. https://search.worldcat.org/title/writing-english-language-Test-a-practical-guide-for-teachers-of-english-as-a-second-or-foreign-language/oclc/2407762 [December 25th 2013].

Hettich, R. L. (1994). Writing apprehension: A critique (Doctoral dissertation). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved from

Hilleson, M. (1996). I want to talk with them, but I don’t want them to hear. In K.M. Bailey & D. Nunan (Eds.), Voices from the Language Classroom (pp. 248-277). Cambridge: CUP.

Huxley, A. (1923). Collected Essays. Preface.

Hyland, K. (2002a). Authority and invisibility: Authorial identity in academic writing. Journal of Pragmatics, 34(8), pp. 1091-1112.

Kaharuddin, A., Arafah, B., and Latif, I. Discourse Analysis for English Language Teaching. Germany: LAP Lambert, 2018.

Knudson, R. (1992). Development and application of a writing attitude survey for grades 1 to 3. Psychological Reports, 70, 711-20. Doi: 10.2466/PR0.70.3.711-720.

Lamia, S. (2016). The effects of the EFL learners’ mother tongue interference on their writing in English: An error analysis study (published MA thesis). Mohamed Khider University of Biskra, Algeria. http://archives.univbiskra.dz/bitstream/123456789/8696/1/a122.pdf

Lavelle, E., Smith, J., & O’Ryan, L. (2002). The Writing Approaches of Secondary Students. The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 399-418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000709902320634564.

Lipstein, R. L., & Renninger, K.A. (2007). Interest in writing: How teachers can make a difference. English Journal, 96(4), 79-85.

Mary Spratt, et al. (2005). The TKT Teaching Knowledge Test Course, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Murray, R. & Moore, S. (2006). The handbook of academic writing. New York: Open University Press.

Oshima, A., & Hogue, A. (2006). Writing academic English (4th edition). White Plains, NY: Pearson.

Patton, M. Q. (2001). Qualitative research and evaluation components. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Peter, C., Samuel, R., Sean, W. & Yoko, Y., Academic Writing Skills 2 Student’s Book. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Philips, J. D. (1979). The essay writing skills of undergraduate students. University of Canterbury.

Phuong, W.T. (2021). Difficulties in studying writing of English-majored sophomores at a university in Vietnam. European Journal of Education Studies.

Quynh, T.L., & Nguyen, H.T. (2008). Student writing process, perceptions, problems, and strategies in writing academic essays in second language: A case study. VNU Journal of Science, Foreign Languages, 24, 184-197.

Richards, Jack C. (1983). Listening comprehension: Approach, design, procedure. TESOL Quarterly, 17, 219-239.

Rajoo, S. A. (2010). Facilitating the development of students’ oral presentation skills. Voice of Academia, 5 (1), 43-50. Retrieved October 18, 2015, from http://kedah.uitm.edu.my/v1/images/stories/industrial_linkages/uitm_press/vo a_5_1_2010/5_1_2010_5.pdf.

Rivers, Wilga M. (1981). Teaching foreign language skill. USA. The University of Chicago.

Schweiker-Marra, K.E., & Marra, W.T. (2000). Investigating the effects of prewriting activities on writing performance and anxiety of at-risk students. Reading Psychology, 21, 99-114.

Silva, T. (2006). Second language writing. Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA,111-118. DOI: 10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00631-3.

Tarigan, H.G. (2008). Memulis. Bandung: Angkasa

Taylor, G. (2009). A student’s writing guides. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Thornbury, S. (2011). How to Teach Vocabulary. Malaysia: Pearson Education Limited.

Troyka. 1987. Definition of writing ability. (Online), (http://teachingenglishonline.net/definition-of-writing-ability), Retrieved 7th February 2012.

Weigle, Sara Cushing (2002). Assessing Writing, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Zamel, V. (1985). Responding to student writing. TESOL Quarterly, 19(1), 79-101. Retrieved on November 12, 2018 from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.2307/3586773.

Zemach, D. E. & Rumisek, L. A. (2005). Academic Writing: From Paragraph to Essay. Oxford: Macmillan Education.

Zemach D. E. & Rumisek L. A. (2005). Academic Writing from Paragraph to Essay. Macmillan.

Zhang, L. J. (2001). Exploring variability in language anxiety: Two groups of P.R. of China students learning ESL in Singapore: RELC Journal, 32, 73-91.

Zughoul, M., & Husain, R. (1985). English for higher education in the Arab world – a case study of needs analysis at Yarmouk University. ESP Journal 4, 133-52.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejel.v9i1.5316


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of English Language Teaching (ISSN 2501-7136) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).