Charles M. Magoma


This paper used a desk review approach to deal with the move towards and emphasis given to integration of curriculum content, not only in Kenya but also world over. The purpose of the paper is to bring out the meaning, rationale and arguments about the concept of curriculum integration. The discourse about curriculum integration is important to the policy makers, all those involved and working as curriculum developers, and for the curriculum implementers. 


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



integration; curriculum integration; interdisciplinary curriculum; integrated syllabus; integrated approach; integrated instruction; curriculum design; subject-based curriculum; curriculum organization; English language; language skills; literature


Abagi, O., Owino, W., Sifuna, D. N., Waga, M., Ngome, C., Aduda, D. & Karugu, A. (2000). Implementing the Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Education System of Kenya (The Koech Report): Realities, Challenges and Prospects. IPAR Special Report Series SR 03/2000.

Adeyemi, T. O. (2008). Teachers’ teaching experience and students’ learning outcomes in secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. Retrieved January, 2011, from http://www.academicjournals.org

Aikin, W. M. (1942). The story of the eight-year study. New York: Harper.

Akyel, A. and Yalcin, E. (1990). Literature in the EFL class: a study of goal achievement incongruence, ELT Journal, 44(3), pp. 174-180.

Altrichter, H. (2005). Curriculum implementation – limiting and facilitating factors. Retrieved January, 2011, from http://www.kreativinnovativ09

Apple, M. W. and Beane, J. A. (1995). Democratic schools. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Arden, R. (1988). Ministry of Education Inspectorate: In-service Materials for 8-4-4 District Seminars, Integration of Language and Literature.

Austin, J. D., Hirstein, J., & Walen, S. (1997). Integrated Mathematics Interfered With Science: School Science and Mathematics.

Barbara, L. (2004). Teacher Professional Development: A Primer for Parents and Community Members. Good Printers Inc.

Barton, K. C. and Smith, L.A. (2000). Themes or Motifs? Aiming at Coherence Through Interdisciplinary Outlines. The Reading Teacher, 54 (I), pp. 54-63.

Beane, J. (1997). Curriculum Integration. Designing the Core of Democratic Education. New York and London: Teachers’ College Press, Columbia University.

Beane, J. and Brodhagen, B. (1996). Doing Curriculum Integration. Madison: University of Wisconsin.

Berry, B., Daughtrey, A., and Wieder, A. (2010). Preparing to Lead an Effective Classroom: The Role of Teacher Training and Professional Development Programs. Retrieved January, 2011, from http://www.ofsted.gov.uk


Best, J. W. (1992). Research in Education. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, USA.

Bishop, G. (1985). Curriculum Development. Hong Kong: Macmillan Publishers.

Blenkin, G. M. and Kelly, A. V. (1981). The Primary Curriculum. London: Harper and Row.

Boisjoly, R., & DeMichiell, R (1994). Introduction to Case Study. In H.Klein (Ed.), WACRA Conference (pp. 67-77). Needham, MA.

Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., Loeb, S. & Wyckoff, J. (2008). Teacher preparation and student achievement. NBER Working Paper W14314. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved January 26, 2011 from http://ssrn.com

Brazee, E. N. and Capelluti, J. (1995). Dissolving Boundaries: Toward an Integrative Curriculum. Columbus. OH: National Middle School Association.

Broughton, G. & Brumfit, C. (1978). Teaching English as a Foreign Language. Routledge, London: New York.

Brumfit, C. J. (1985). Language and Literature Teaching. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Bruner, J. (1960). The process of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University GPress.

Caine, R. and Caine, G. (1991). Making Connections: Teaching and the Human Brain. Alexandria, Association for Supervision and Curriculum development.

Cano, V. http://www.qmuc.ac.uk/psyc/Rtrek/study_notes/web/sn5.htm.

Carless, D. (2009). Trust, distrust and their impact on assessment reform. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 34(1), 79-89.

Carless, D. R. (2003). Factors in the implementation of task-based teaching in primary schools. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from http://www.sciencedirect.com.

Carless, D. R. (1999). A Case study of curriculum implementation in Hong Kong. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from http://www.sciencedirect.com.

Carter, A. (1986). Linguistic Models, Language Literariness. In Carter, R. and Brumfit, G. J. (ed.), Literature and Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 110-132.

Carter, R. A. and Long, M. (1991). Teaching Literature. Essex: Longman.

Clark, D. L. & Guba, E. G. (1967). An Examination of Potential Change Roles in Education in Rational Planning in Curriculum and Instruction. National Education Association, USA.

Clark, D.C. and Clark, S. N. (1994). Meeting the needs of young adolescents, Schools in the Middle 4(1), pp. 4-7.

Collie, J. and Slatter, S. (1987). Literature in the Classroom: A Resource Book of Ideas and Activities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Creswell, J. W. (1994). Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. London: Sage Publications.

Cromwell, S. (1989). A New Way of Thinking: The Challenge of the Future. Educational Leadership 49(1), pp. 60-64.

Cumming, J. (1994a). Catering for the needs of all young adolescents: Towards an integrated approach, Unicom 20(2), pp. 12-20.

Curriculum innovation in Schools (n.d.) Retrieved November 29, 2008, from http://www.ofsted.gov.uk

Cuttance, P. (2001). School Innovation: Pathway to the Knowledge Society. http://www.detya.gov.au//schools/publications/index.htm

Davies, A. (1973). Literature for Children. Walton Hall, Milton Keyres: The Open University press.

Davis, B., Sumara, D. and Luce-Kapler, R. (2000). Engaging minds: Learning and teaching in a complex world. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associated.

Drake, S. M. 1993). Planning integrated curriculum: The call to adventure. Alexandria, VA: Association for Curriculum Development.

Dunk, M. and G. Wiley. (1987). Integrated English Language and Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Erickson, H. L. (2003). Integrated Curriculum: A chapter of the curriculum handbook. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Erickson, H. L. (1998). Concept-based curriculum and instruction: Teaching beyond the facts. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Evans, T. (1984). Drama in English Teaching. Groom Helm, London.

Faunce, R. C., and Bossing, N. L. (1958). Developing the Core Curriculum. Englewood-Cliffs, Prentice-Hall. (1st ed. Published 1951).

Feagin, J., Orum, A., & Sjoberg, G. (Eds.). (1991). Introduction to case study. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Fernandez, T. S. (2007). From the Drawing Board into Schools: An Analysis of the Development and Implementation of a New Physics Curriculum in New Zealand Secondary Schools. PhD Thesis, University of Wakaito.

Fullan, M. (2001). The Meaning of Educational Change. New York: Teachers College Press.

Fullan, M. (2000a).The Return of Large Scale Reform. The Journal of Educational Change, 1(1), 1-23.

Fullan, M. (1994). Implementation of Innovations. In: Husen T, Postlethwaite T N (eds.) The International Encyclopedia of Education. 2nd edition. Pergamon, Oxford.

Furinghetti, F. and Somaglia, A. (1998). History of Mathematics in schools across disciplines, Mathematics in school, 27(4), pp. 48-51.

George, P. S. (1996). Arguing integrated curriculum. Education Digest.

Gibbs, R. W. (1994). The poetics of mind, figurative thought and language and understanding. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gillard, D. (1987). Whatever Happened to the Integrated Curriculum? http://www.dig.dial.pipex.com/articles/educ06.shtml

Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://ace.upm.edu.my/~lateef/Handouts

Good, C. (Ed.) (1973). Dictionary of Education, Third Edition. New York: McGnaw -Hill.

Guba. E. G. (1981). Criteria for Assessing the Trustworthiness of Naturalistic Inquiries. In Educational Communication and Technology Journal Vol. 29, No. 2 pp. 75-91.

Halliday, I. G. (1999). Developing a Professional Teaching Service. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.

Hargreaves, A., Earl, L. and Ryan, J. (1996). Schooling for change: Reinventing education for early adolescents. London: Falmer.

Hargreaves, D. (1994). The new professionalism: The synthesis of professional and institutional development, Teaching and Teacher Education, 10(4): 423-438.

Hart, L. (1983). Human brain, human learning. New York: Longman.

Helms, J. V. (1998). Science and me. Subject matter and identity in secondary school science teachers, Journal of Research in Science Teaching 35(7), pp. 811-834.

Hirst, P. H. (1974). Knowledge and the Curriculum: A collection of philosophical papers. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Hirst, P. H. and Peters, R. S. (1970). The logic of Education. London: Routledge.

Hord, S. M. and Huling-Austin, L. (1986). Effective Curriculum Implementation: Some Promising New Insight. In The Elementary School Journal, Vol.G87.No. 1.

Huberman, M., & Miles, M. (1984). Innovation Up Close. New York: Plenum.

Huck, C. (1987). Children’s Literature in the Elementary School. Olio States University, Olio: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc.

Humphreys, A.; Post, T.; and Ellis, A. (1981). Interdisciplinary Methods: A Thematic Approach. Santa Monica. CA: Goodyear Publishing Company.

Hunt, M. (1985). Profiles in School Research. New York: Russell sage Foundation.

Indangasi, H. (1988). Literature and the Teaching of English-The Place of Grammar in the Teaching of English. Nairobi: British Council.

Jacobs, H. H. (Ed.). (1989). Interdisciplinary Curriculum: Design and Implementation. Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.

John, J. (1986). Language versus literature in university English departments. English Teaching Forum, 24(4), pp. 18-22.

Kain, D. (1993). Cabbages-and Kings: Research Directions in Integrated/Interdisciplinary Curriculum. The Journal of Educational Thought, 27 (3), pp. 312-331.

Kallon, M. R. (1996). An Interpretive Study of Planned Educational Reform in Sierra Leone: The Primary School and Teacher Education, Ph.D. (unpublished) Thesis, Toronto University.

Kane, E. (1995). Seeing for Yourself: Research Handbook for Girls in Africa. Washington, D.C., World Bank.

Kaplan, L. S. (1997). Parents’ rights: Are middle schools at risk? Schools in the Middle 7(1), pp. 35-38, 48.

Karim, K. A. (1994). Teacher Education Development, Teacher Performance and Morale. In Report of the Third Teacher Education Conference. Nairobi: Government Printer.

Kathy, L. (2000). Integrated Curriculum School Improvement research Series. http://k6boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/linkages/Guiding/guidingintro.html#guidi g1.

Kelly, A. V. (1982). The Curriculum: Theory and Practice. London: Harper and Row.

Kelly, P. J. (2007). http://www.jstor.org/journals/black.

Kenya Institute of Education (2002). Secondary Education Teacher Preparation Guide for English. Nairobi: KIE.

Kenya Institute of Education (1999). Executive Summary on the Needs Assessment for the Secondary School Curriculum. KIE Report Series No. 64. Nairobi: KIE.

Kenya Institute of Education (1995). Evaluation of the Secondary School Curriculum. KIE Research Report Series No. 53. Nairobi: KIE.

Kenya Institute of Education (1987). A handbook for Teachers of English in Secondary Schools in Kenya. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.

Kenya Institute of Education (1978). Report by the Mathematics Sub-committee. Nairobi: KIE.

Kenya Institute of Education (1977). Kenya Primary Mathematics Project Description. Nairobi: KIE.

Kenya National Examinations Council (2006). ‘Radical Changes as K.C.S.E. Exams Begin’ in the Daily Nation, Nairobi: Nation Media Group.

Kenya National Examinations Council (2005). Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Regulation and Syllabuses 2006-2007. Nairobi: Government Press.

Kenya National Examinations Council (1986). Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Regulation and Syllabuses 1987. Nairobi: Business Forms and Systems Ltd.

Kiminza, O. (2000). The Curriculum Review Process: An Overview of the Curriculum Rationalization Component under Steps. A paper presented at the staff seminar held at KIE on 16-19th October 2000.

Kinyua, J. I. (1994). The Implications of Innovative Instructional Practices in Teacher Education on Equipment and Teaching Materials. In Report of the Third Teacher Education Conference. Nairobi: Government Printer.

Kirkgoz, Y. (2008). Curriculum in Turkish primary education. Retrieved January 7, 2011, from http://www.deepdyve.com.

Lazar, G. (1993). The Input hypothesis: Issues and Implications. Harlow.

Lillis, K.M. (1986). Africanizing the school literature curriculum in Kenya: A case-study in curriculum dependency. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 18 (1), 63-84.

¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬ Lillis, K.M. (1985). Processes of Secondary Curriculum Innovation in Kenya. In Comparative Education Review, Vol. 29, No, pp.80-96.

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Lipson, M., Valencia, S. and Peters, C. (1993). Integration and Thematic Teaching: Integration to Improve Teaching and Learning, Language Arts, 7(4): pp. 252-264.

London Evening Standard (2006). Discipline fears as female teachers outnumber male peers by 12 to one. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article.

Magoma, C. M. (1999). Teacher Related Factors Which Influence the Implementation of Integrated English Course in Secondary Schools: A Case Study of Ibacho Division, Kisii Central District, M.Ed. (unpublished) Thesis, Kenyatta University.

Maling, J. and Keepes, B. (1985). Educational Research and Evaluation. In Elliot Eisner (Ed.) for 84th Yearbook of Education of NSSE. Learning and Teaching the Ways of Knowing. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Marsh, C. J. (1993). How achievable is curriculum integration? A paper presented at the tenth Hong Kong Educational Research Association Conference, Hong Kong.

Marshall, C. and Rossman, G. B. (1995). Designing Qualitative Research. London: Sage Publications.

Mason, J. (1998). Qualitative Researching. London: Sage Publications.

Mathison, S. (1988). Why triangulate? Educational Researcher, 17(2), 13-17.

Mbeche, F. G. (2003). Projection of Enrolment in B.Ed. Programme to Meet the Demand of Teachers for Integrated English in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya, M.Ed. (unpublished) Thesis, Kenyatta University.

McBride, J. W. and Silverman, F. L. (1991). Integrating elementary/middle school science and mathematics, School Science and Mathematics, 9(7), pp. 285-292.

McKenzie, G., Powell, J. & Usher, R. (Eds) (1997). Understanding Social Research Perspectives on Methodology and Practice. London, The Falmer Press.

Menya, J. O. (1994). Innovative Instructional Practices. In Teacher Education in Report of the Third Teacher Education Conference. Nairobi: Government Printer.

Ming, K. (1995). The implementation of a curriculum innovation for developing nursing process skills: a case study of a school of nursing in Hong Kong. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from http://www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk.

Ministry of Education (2010). Summative Evaluation of the Secondary School Education Curriculum. Nairobi: Kenya Institute of Education.

Ministry of Education (2006). Secondary English Teacher’s Handbook. Nairobi: Kenya Institute of Education.

Ministry of Education (1999). Professionalizing Teacher Education in Kenya. Nairobi: Government Printer.

Ministry of Education (1994). Report of the Third Teacher Education Conference. Nairobi: Government Printer

Ministry of Education (1984). 8-4-4 System of Education. Nairobi: Government Printer.

Mohammad, R. F. and Harlech-Jones, B. (2008). Working as partners for classroom reform. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from http://www.sciencedirect.com

Morganthau, T. (1998). How to Help Your Child Succeed in School. In Auchincloss, K. Score Newsweek, 1998 Edition.

Muchiri, M. N. (1986). Integrating English and Literature - Proceedings: Conference on English in East Africa. Nairobi: British Council.

Murray, J. (1997). Quality Teaching/ Quality Learning: A Discussion Paper for Teachers, Principals and Parents. Training and Development Directorate, NSW Department of School of Education.

Muthiani, J. (1988). Grammar through Literature: Using Linguistic Questions- Proceedings: Conference on the Place of Grammar in the Teaching of English. Nairobi: British Council.

Muutu N. E. (1993). An Investigation into the Current State of the Integration of English Language and Literature Teaching in Secondary Schools in Nairobi Province, P.G.D.C.D. (unpublished) Project Report, Kenyatta University.

Mwandoe, B. M. (2002). The Teaching and Learning of Secondary School Poetry in English in Kenya: An Ethnographic Study of Two Schools in Voi Division, M.Ed. (unpublished) Thesis, Kenyatta University.

Mwanzi, H. O. (1987). Teaching Grammar Through Literature- In In-service Materials for District Seminars. Nairobi: British Council.

National Middle School Association. (1995). This we believe: Developmentally responsive middle level schools. Columbus, OH: Author.

New Zealand Ministry of Education (2010). The time needed for implementation. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from http://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz

Njoka, E. N. (1994). Teacher Management and Professional Support Services. In Report of the Third Teacher Education Conference. Nairobi: Government Printer.

Obeidat, M. M. (1997). Language vs. Literature. In English Departments in the Arab World. Vol. 35 No. 1 P. 30.

Obeidat, M. M. (1996). On non-native grounds: The place of American literature in the English curriculum of the Arab world universities. American Studies International, 34(1), pp. 18-30.

Ochieng, E. B. G. (2006). Students’ Attitudes Towards and Performance in Integrated English Syllabus in Secondary Schools in Rongo Division, Migori District, Kenya, M.Ed. (unpublished) Thesis, Kenyatta University.

Ogula, P. A. (n.d.). The Evaluation Experience of Primary and Secondary Education Projects in Kenya. Retrieved January 26, 2011, from http://www.fiuc.org/iaup

Okwara, M. O., Shiundu, J. O. and Indoshi, F. C. (2009). Towards a model of integrated English language curriculum for secondary schools in Kenya. In Educational Research and Review Vol. 4 (5). Retrieved February 4, 2009, from http://www.academic-journals.org/ERR

Omollo, D.A. (1990). An Investigation into the Techniques and Problems of Integrating the Teaching of English Language and Literature in Kenya Secondary Schools’, M.Ed. (unpublished) Thesis, Kenyatta University.

Or, W. W. (1995). Reinstating Literature in the EFL syllabus. In Thinking Language: Issues in the Study of Language and Language Curriculum Renewal. Hong Kong: Language Centre, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

Owigar, J. W. B. (1998). Historical Background to the Curriculum Reviews in Kenya. Nairobi: KIE.

Oxford, R. (1996). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.

Patton, M. Q. (2001). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods (2nd Edition). Thousand oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. California: Sage Publications.

Perkins, D. N. (1991). Educating for Insight. Educational Leadership, 49(2), pp.4-8.

Povey, J. C. (1972). Literature in TESL programs: The language and culture. In H. Allan and R. Campbell (Eds.), Teaching English as a second language, pp. 187-188.New York: McGraw-Hill.

Pring, R, (1976). Knowledge and Schooling. Well: Open Books.

Pring, R. (1971). Curriculum Integration. In Hooper, R. (ed.) The Curriculum Context, Design and Development. Edinburgh: The Open University Press.

Radhika, O. (1991). Literature in the Language Classroom. In The English Teacher Vol. XX October 1991.

Republic of Kenya (1999). Totally Integrated quality Education and Training (TIQET): Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Education System of Kenya. Nairobi: Government Printer.

Republic of Kenya (1981). Second University in Kenya -The Report of the Presidential Working Party. Nairobi: Government Printer.

Republic of Kenya (1964). Kenya Education Commission Report. Nairobi: Government Printer.

Rodgers, A. (1962). Linguistics and the Teaching of Literature. In Fraser, H. and O’Dannel (Eds). Applied Linguistics and the Teaching of English. London: Longman, Green and Co. Ltd.

Rolfe, R. (2009). Curriculum innovation in Jersey. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from http://www.ssat-inet.net.

Salih, M. H. (1986). From language to literature in university English departments. English Teaching Forum, 27(2), pp. 25-28.

Savvidou, C. (2004). An Integrated Approach to Teaching Literature in the EFL Classroom. In Internet TESL Journal, Vol. X, No. 12 December 2004.

Senanu, L. and Drid, O. (1995). Creative Use of Language in Kenya. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.

Sereti, J. R. (1993). Teaching Methodology for Large Classes: English across the Curriculum in Difficult Circumstances - Proceedings of the Conference on English across the Curriculum: The Kenya Context. Nairobi: British Council.

Shanguya, M. N. (1995). Factors Relevant to Teacher Training Improvement: A Case Study of Instructional Technology in the Curriculum of the Teacher Education Programme of Kenyatta University, Ph.D. (Unpublished) Thesis, University of Toronto, Canada.

Shiundu, J. S. and Omulando, S. J. (1992). Curriculum Theory and Practice in Kenya. Nairobi: Oxford University Press

Shoemaker, B. (1989). Integrative Education: A Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century. Oregon School Study Council, 33(2).

Siskin, L. S. (1994). Realms Knowledge: Academic departments in secondary schools: London, UK: Falmer.

Sivasubramaniam, S. (2006). Promoting the prevalence of Literature in the Practice of Foreign and Second Language Education: Issues and Insights, Asian EFL Journal Vol. 8(4) Article 11.

Sommer, B. and Sommer, R. (1991). A Practical Guide to Behavioural Research Tools and Techniques. New York: Oxford University Press.

Stake, R. (1995). The art of case research. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.

Stake, R. E. (1978). The Case Study Methods in Social Enquiry. Educational Research, 7(2), pp. 5-8.

Sure, E. K. and Arden, R. (1986). Compensatory Methodology in Second Language Teaching. Proceedings: Conference on English in East Africa. Nairobi: British Council.

Taba, H. (1962). Curriculum: Theory and Practice. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World. Inc.

Tellis, W. (1997). Boisjoly, R., & DeMichiell, R. (1994). A business outcome model with an international component: A new workplace dictates new learning objectives. In H. Klein (Ed.), WACRA Conference (pp. 67-77).

Teyle, J. A. and Okatch, B. (1991). Learning Language and Literature Through Drama - Proceedings: The Role of Language and Literature in the School Curriculum. Nairobi: British Council.

Thomas, R. M. (1994). Implementation of educational reforms. In: Husen T./Postlethwaite, T.N. (eds.): The International Encyclopaedia of Education. 2nd edition. Pergamon: Oxford.

Til (1976). What should be taught and learned through secondary education? In W. Til (Ed.), Issues in secondary education, Seventy-fifth yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part II pp. 178-213). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Trochim, W. M. K. (2006). No probability Sampling.


UNIST-CNRS (2006). Research Methods. Library Trends. Vol. 55(1), pp. 4-21.

Vars, G. F. (2000b). Common learnings: A 50- year quest. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 16(1), pp. 70-89.

Vars, G. F. (1996). The effects of interdisciplinary curriculum and instruction. In P.S. Hlebowitch and W. G. Wraga (Eds.), Annual review of research for school leaders (pp. 147-164), Jefferson City, MO: Scholastic.

Vars, G. F. (1991). Integrated Curriculum in historical perspective. Educational Leadership, 49(2), pp. 14-15.

Venville, G., Wallace, J., Rennie, J. & Malone, C. (2001). Curriculum Integration: Eroding the High Ground of Science as a School Subject? A paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Fremantle: WA, 2-6 December 2001.

Waithaka, J. M. (1993). English across the Curriculum - The Ministry of Education's Position - Proceedings of the Conference on English across the Curriculum: The Kenya Context. Nairobi: British Council.

Welleck, R. & Warren, A. (1949). Theory of Literature. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace.

Wellington, J. (2000). Educational Research, Contemporary Issues and Practical Approaches. London, Continuum.

Widdowson, H. (1979). Explorations in Applied Linguistics. Oxford: University Press.

Wikipedia (2011). Retrieved March 14, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/School_Mathematics_Project

Wikipedia (2010). Qualitative research. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qualitative_research

Wolf, P. and Brandt, R. (1998). What Do We Know From Brain Research? Educational Leadership, 56(3), pp. 8-13.

Wood, K. (1997). Interdisciplinary Instruction: A Practical Guide for Elementary and Middle School Teachers. Upper Saddle River, N.J., Merrill.

Wraga, W. G. (1997). A century of interdisciplinary curricula in American schools. In P.S. Hlebowitsh and W. G. Wraga (Eds.), Annual review of research for school leaders (pp. 147-164), Jefferson City, MO: Scholastic.

Yin, R. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods (2nd Ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Yin, R. (1993). Applications of case study research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Yin, R. K. (1984). Case Study Research Design: Design and Methods. Applied and Social Research Methods Series, Vol. 5: Beverly Hills, C.A.: Sage.

Zonabend, F. (1992). The monograph in European ethnology. Current Sociology, 40(1), 49-60

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejel.v0i0.665


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015. European Journal of English Language Teaching (ISSN 2501-7136) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).