Shkelqim Millaku


A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause. A multiple sentence contains one or more clauses as its immediate constituents. Multiple sentences are either compound or complex. In a compound sentence the immediate constituents are two or more coordinate clause. In a complex sentence one or more of its elements, such as direct object or adverbial, are realized by a subordinate.[1] Simple sentence may be divided into four major syntactic classes, whose use correlates with different communicative functions;[2] we have in Albanian and English same structure of forms e.g.

  1. The sentence that has the subject and is always present and usually precedes the verb and it is positive sentence:

 The teacher will speak to the dean today.

 Mësuesi do të flet me dekanin sot.

  1. The question sentence forms have three or more models of making and noun is the kernel e.g.

Will teacher speak to the dean today?


Keywords: simple, compound, complex and compound complex, sentence, Albanian, English

[1] Randolph Quirk (…). (1985). A comprehensive grammar of the English language. London, p. 719.

[2] Randalph Quirk. (1973). A university grammar of English. London, p. 191.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



simple, compound, complex and compound complex, sentence, Albanian, English


Abney, S.P. (1987). The English noun phrase in its sentential aspect. Cambridge.

Aboh, E. O. (2004). The morphosyntax of complement-head sequences. New York.

Wojcicki, A. (1995). Constraints on suffixation, Tubingen. Germany.

Adams, V. (1973). An introduction to modern English word-formation. London.

Carnie, A. (2002). Syntax. Oxford.

Radford, A. (2004). English Syntax. Cambridge.

Radford, A. (1997). Syntactic theory and the structure of English. Cambridge.

Radford, A. (2004). English syntax. Cambridge.

Spencer, A & Arnold Zwicky. (1998). The Handbook of Morphology, Malden (USA).

Downing, A & Philip Locke. (2002). A university English grammar. London.

Becker, A & Markus Bieswanger. (2006). Introduction to English linguistics. Germany.

Mark, A. (2005). What is Morphology. Malden.

Aronoff, M. (1992). Morphology now, State University of New York.

Aronoff, M. (1975). Word Formation in Generative Grammar. Cambridge.

Bas, A. (2008). English syntax and argumentation. Cambridge.

Baker, C.L. (1995). English Syntax. London.

Connor, F. (1993). The Meaning of Syntax. New York.

Kallulli, D. (19999). The Comparative Syntax of Albanian. Durham.

Adger, D. (2003). Core Syntax. Oxford.

Kruising, E. (1995). English Accidence and Syntax. Wien.

Herburger, E. (1990). English noun phrase structure. Wien.

Selkirk, E. (182). The syntax of Words. London.

Bach, E. (1966). An Introduction to Transformation grammar. New York.

Bach, E. (1968). Noun and Noun-Phrase. New York.

George, Y. (2006). The Study of language. New York.

Georgio, G. (2003). Sintaksa, struktura e ligjërimit, përkth. Blerta Topalli. Tiranë.

Gerhard, N. (1971). Papers in Contrastive Linguistics. Cambridge.

Gerrit, R. (1999). First Explorations in English Syntax. London.

Giordano, E. (1963). Fjalori i Arbëreshëve të Italisë. Bari.

Giorgio, G. (2003). Sintaksa (përkthyese Blerta Topalli). Tiranë.

Goçi, I. (1986). Antonimet e Gjuhës se sotme shqipe. Prishtinë.

Graeme, K. (2003). Structure and meaning in English. Great Britain.

Grup autoresh. (2002). Gramatika e Gjuhës shqipe I. Tiranë.

Grup autoresh. (2002).Gramatika e gjuhës shqipe II. Tiranë.

Ian, R. (1997). Comparative Syntax. London.

Ingo, P. (2003). Word-formation in English. Cambridge.

Jackenddoff, R. (1972). The structure of English noun. Cambridge.

Miller, J. (2002). An Introduction English syntax. Edimburg.

Bresnan, J. (1979). Theory of Complementation in English syntax. London.

Andeson, J. (1968). The grammar of case. London.

Andeson, J. (1975). Noun phrase as adjective. London.

Hewson, J. (1972). Article and noun in English. Paris.

Jensen, J. (1990). Morphology. Word Structure in Generative Grammar. Amsterdam.

Lyons, J. (1968). Introduction to theoretical linguistical. Cambridge.

Michael, L. J. (1973). Studies in English Generics. London.

Askedal, O, J. (2010). Noam Chomsky and language descriptions. Philadelphia.

John, E. (1997). Oxford Practice Grammar. London

Jokl, N. (1972). “Naim be Frashëri e pasunimi i gjuhës shqipe”, Gjurmime albanologjike, Seria e shkencave filologjike II. Prishtinë.

Josif, M. (2005). Hyrje në sintaksën gjenerative. Prishtinë.

Josif, M. (2008). Rendi i fjalëve dhe struktura e fjalive kohore. Prishtinë.

Juhn, A. (1977). On case grammar, London.

Karl, R. (1982). Ctegorial grammar and word-formation, Tubingen. Germany.

Kayen, R. (1982). Nouns and Predicate, Glow. Newsletter.

Kazumi, M. (1979). Syntax and Style in Early English. Tokyo.

Langendoen, T. (1969). The study of syntax. New York.

Lasnik, H. (2002).The minimalit Program in Syntax. Cambridge.

Laurie, B. (1983). English word-formation. New York.

Laurie, B. (1983). English Word Formation. Cambridge.

Lawri, B. (1996). English Word-formation. Cambridge.

Lees, R. B. (1960). The Grammar of English Nominalization. The Hague. Mouton.

Leonard, B. (20099). The syntax of argument structure. Cambridge.

Newmark, L. (1982). Philip Hubbard, Peter Prifti. Standard Albanian, A reference grammar for students. Stanford, California. USA.

Leslie, D. Alan Riding. (2004). Essential Shakespeare handbook. London.

Lilane, H. (1997). The New Comparative syntax. London.

Lloshi, Xh. (1999). Stilistika dhe Pragmatika. Tiranë.

Loyd, G. (1974). Albanian phonology. Wiesbaden. Germany.

Lynn, B. (1999). English syntax. New York.

Lyons, J. (1970). Generative Syntax. Harmondsworth.

Lyons, J. (1984). Language Linguistics. Cambridge University Pres.

Camaj, M. (1984). Albanian grammar. Wiesbaden, Germany.

Matthews, P.H. (1984). Syntax, Cambridge.

Max M. (2002). Doing Grammar. New York.

Çeliku, M (…). (1996).Gramatika e gjuhës shqipe II. Tiranë.

Memushaj, R. (2008). Gjuhësi gjenerative. Tiranë.

Merxhani, B. (1998). Formula të Neoshqiptarismës. Prishtinë.

Michael, M. (2008). English and American literature. Stuttgart.

Michaela, M. (2005). English General Nouns. Liverpool.

Mita, J. (2005). Hyrje në sintaksën gjenerative. Prishtinë.

Nushi, M. (2003). Gjuha e sotme shqipe. Prishtinë.

Chomsky, N. (1972). Studies on semantics in generative grammar. Paris.

Chomsky, N. (1980). Rules and representation. Oxford, London.

Chomsky, N. (1982). The generative enterprise. Dordrecht. Holland.

Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge.

Chomsky, N. (1986). Knowledge of language. New York.

Chomsky, N. (2002). Syntactic Structures. New York.

Chomsky, N. (2007). Language and problems of knowledge, (përkth. në shqip Blerta Topalli). Tiranë.

Chomsky, N. 2010). Development of the Anglo-Saxon Language and Linguistic Universal. Philadelphia. Culicover, P. (1976). Syntax. New York.

Culicover, P. (1992). Syntax. London.

Culicover, P. (2005). Simple syntax. Oxford.

Culicover, P. (2007). Simpler syntax. Oxford.

Sgall, P (…). (1968). A functional approach to syntax, in generative description of language. New York.

Qesku, P. (2002). Fjalor Anglisht-Shqip, English-Albanian Dictionery. Tiranë.

Quirk R & Sidney Greenbaum. (1985). A comprehensive grammar of the English language. New York.

Raymond, M. (1986). English Grammar In Use. Cambridge.

Van, R. (1997). Valinm Randy, LaPolla. Syntax. New York.

Huddleston, R. (1976). An Introduction to English transformation syntax. New York.

Huddleston, R., Geoffrey Pullum. (2002). The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge.

Millaku, Sh. (2009). Kontributi i Zellik Harris për gjuhësinë, IASH. Tetovë.

Millaku, Sh. (2015). Kërkime gjuhësore. Prizren.

Millaku, Sh. (2011). Studime gjuhësore I. Prishtinë.

Millaku, Sh. (2011). Strukturat sintaksore. Prishtinë.

Millaku, Sh. (2009). (Profesor Selman Riza dhe Albanologjia) Studimet e Selman Rizes në fushën e morfologjisë. Korçë, f. 143-150.

Millaku, Sh. (2011). Historiku i nyjës se prapme (kontrast me gjuhët ballkanike), Edukologjia, nr.2, f.81-96. Prishtinë.

Millaku, Shkelqim

The contrast of Direct Object between Albanian and English language

ISSN: 2454-1362, -

Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Dubai, 2016.

Millaku, Shkelqim The contrast of the gender between Albanian and English language, International Journal of Thales Educational Sciences (THEDS) ISSN (print): 2149-5130 -

-15; Vol.2, No.1, Turqi, 2016

Millaku, Shkelqim, 2015, The Compound Nouns,

Millaku, Shkelqim, 2016, The Noun Phrases, Anglisticum Journal,

Millaku, Shkelqim, 2015, The Direct Object, Anglisticum Journal,, Retrieved on February 17, 2016.

Millaku, Shkelqim, 2015, The Genitive, Anglisticum Journal

Retrieved on February 17, 2016

Millaku, Shkelqim, THE FUNCTION OF NOUN PHRASES BETWEEN ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH, The 2016 WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings Vienna, Austria: Millaku.pdf

Pinker, S. (1984). Language Learnability of language development. London.

Mann, S. A. (1932). Short Albanian grammar. London.

Evertsen, L.S. (2004). Native American Literatures, New York.

Chalker, S, Edomnd Weiner. (1994). The Oxford dictionary of English grammar.

Givon, T. (1993). English grammar I. Philadelphia.

Givon, T. (1996). English grammar. Philadelphia.

Jupp, T.C & John Milne. (1968). English sentence structure. London.

Kelmendi, T. (2006). Kështjella e sintaksës. Prishtinë.

Kelmendi, T. (2008). Studime sintaksore. Prishtinë.

Verlag, V. (1986). English Grammar. Berlin.

Harris, Z. (1951). Structural linguistic. London.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of English Language Teaching (ISSN 2501-7136) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).