Japheth Abdulazeez Yaya, Oluseyi A. Akintayo Oluseyi A. Akintayo, Chioma Euriel Uzohue


This study investigated emotional intelligence as correlates of productivity of librarians in Nigerian public universities. A correlational survey research design was adopted. The study population consisted of 1,254 librarians in public university libraries in Nigeria, from which 923 were selected using simple random sampling. The research instrument used was a self-developed questionnaire. The questionnaire validation was subjected to the scrutiny of the experts in the areas of the variables studied; it gave a reliability coefficient of 0.91 for Emotional Intelligence and 0.94 for Productivity. A response rate of 67.2% was achieved. Data were analysed using descriptive (percentage, mean, average mean and standard deviation) and inferential (Pearson Product Moment Correlation) statistics. The study revealed a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and productivity (r = 0.032, P < 0.05) of librarians in public university libraries in Nigeria. The study concluded that contrary to general belief, emotional intelligence and productivity levels of librarians in university libraries were high. It is recommended that university library management should continue to promote values that would improve emotional intelligence and productivity of its workforce.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


emotional intelligence, librarians’ productivity, productivity in public university libraries, emotional intelligence competencies


Abdullah-Sani, M.K.J.et al (2013). Assessing the Emotional Intelligence Profile of Public Librarians in Malaysia: Descriptive Analysis. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/1047 on 27/03/14

Adeyokun, B.O. & Yaya, J.A. (2010).Consortium building of educational materials in Nigerian libraries. Jewel Journal of Librarianship, 2, 128 – 137.

Affandi, H. &Raza, N. (2013). Leaders’ emotional intelligence and its outcomes, a study of medical professionals in Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 5 (7), 279-297. Available online at http://www.ijcrb.webs.com.

Afolabi, A. & Omole, J.P. (2010). Influence of emotional intelligence and gender on job performance and job satisfaction among Nigerian policemen. Journal of Social Sciences, 2 (3), 147-154.

Aina, L. O. (2004). Library and Information Science Text for Africa. Ibadan: Third World Services Limited.

Ajala, E. M. (2012). The Influence of workplace environment on workers’ welfare, performance and productivity. The African Symposium: An online Journal of the African Educational Research Network, 12 (1), 141-149. Available online at: http://www.ncsu.edu/aern/TAS12.1/TAS12.1Ajala.pdf

Akinboye, J.O. (2003). Creativity, Innovation and Success. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers Ltd.

Ali, A.Y.S., Ali, A.A. &Adan, A.A. (2013). Working conditions and employees’ productivity in manufacturing companies in sub-Saharan African context: case of Somalia. Educational Research International, 2(2), 67 – 78. Available online at: www.savap.org.pk

Anonymous author (n.d).Term paper on impact of emotional intelligence on employee’sperformance. Retrieved from

http://www.BesplatniSeminarskiRadovi.com on 18/10/14.

Azuka, B.F. & Kurumeh, M.S. (2015). Effects of emotional intelligence skills acquisition on students’ achievement in senior secondary school geometry in Keffi education zone, Nasarrawa State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Education and E-Learning (ISSN: 2321-2454), 243 – 257. Available at: www.ajouronline.com.

Babalola, G.A. & Nwalo, K.I.N. (2013). Influence of job motivation on the productivity of librarians in colleges of education in Nigeria. Information and Knowledge Management, 3 (5), 70-75. Retrieved from: www.iiste.org on 27/02/14.

Bachman, J., et al (2000). Emotional intelligence in the collection of debt. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8 (3), 176-182.

Bar-On, R. (2000). “Emotional and Social Intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Quotient Inventory”, in R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.) (2000) The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Development, Assessment, and Application at Home, School, and in the Workplace, (pp. 363-388). San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass.

Bibi, A., Lanrong, Y., Haseeb, M. & Ahmad, I. (2012). The Effect of human resource management practices on employees’ job satisfaction on the universities of Pakistan. Business Management Dynamics, 1 (12), 1-14.

Boston University School of Public Health (2013).The Social cognitive theory. Retrieved on 30/08/14 from


Boyatzis, R., Goleman, D. & Rhee, K. (2000). Clustering competence in emotional intelligence: Insights from the emotional competence inventory (ECI). In R. Bar-On and J.D.A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of Emotional Intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Browne, C., George-Curran, R. & Smith, M. (2003). The role of emotional intelligence in the career commitment and decision making process. Journal of Career Assessment, 11(4), 379-392.

Budd, J. M. (2007). The Academic Library: Its Context, its Purpose, and its Operation. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.

Chaudhary, N. & Sharma, B. (2012).Impact of employee motivation on performance (productivity) in private organization. International Journal of Business Trends and Technology, 2 (4), 29-35.

Cheng, T. (2016). Research methods part 4: The correlational design. Retrieved on 28th April, 2016 from


Chia, Y.M. (2005). Job offers of multi-national accounting firms: the effects of emotional intelligence, extracurricular activities, and academic performance. Accounting Education, 86 (7), 75 - 93.

Craig, P. (2008). The relationship between the emotional intelligence of the principal and teacher job satisfaction. Dissertations available from ProQuest.

Crant, J.M. (1995). The proactive personality scale and objective job performance among real estate agents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80.

Dost, M.K.B., Rehman, Z., & Tariq, S. (2012). The Organizations having high level of glass ceiling, has lower productivity due to lack of employee commitment. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 1 (8), 93-103.

Dubre, O. (2013). Employee motivation and organizational performance. Review of Applied Socio-Economic Research, 5 (1), 53-60. Available online at http://www.reaser.eu

EBSCO Competency Center (2013). Emotional intelligence and relationships. Retrieved on 18/10/14 from http://www.ebscohost.com

Ghoniem, A. ElKhouly, S., Mohsen, G. & Ibrahim, M. (2011).Impact of emotional intelligence and gender on job satisfaction among Egyptian Government sector employees. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 3(1), 22-27

Goleman, D. (2005). Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bentam Book.

----------(2002). “An EI-based theory of performance”. In the Emotionally Intelligent Workplace edited by: Cary Cherniss and Daniel Goleman. Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations. Available online at: www.eiconsortium.org

-----------(1998). Daniel Goleman's five components of emotional intelligence. Available at http://www.sonoma.edu/users/swijtlink/teaching/philosophy.../goleman.htm .

-----------(1995a). Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.

-----------(1995b). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

Gundecha, M.M. (2012). Study of Factors Affecting Labour Productivity at a Building Construction Project in the USA: Web Survey. Unpublished dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Science.

Hernon, P., Giesecke, J., &Alire, C. A. (2007): Academic Librarians as Emotionally Intelligent Leaders. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Holahan, C.K. & Sears, R.R. (1995).The Gifted Group in Later Maturity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Javidparvar, L., Hosseini, T.A. & Berjisian, R. (2013). The Relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership performance in primary schools managers of Isfahan. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(8), 1-10. Retrieved on 18/10/14from http://www.ijsrp.org

Kahtani, A. A. (2013). Employee emotional intelligence and employee performance in the higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia: A Proposed theoretical framework. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4 (9), 81-95.

Khokhar, C.P. & Kush, T. (2009). Emotional intelligence and work performance among executive. Europe Journal of Psychology, 1, 1-11.

Kowalczyk, D. (2015). Correlational research: Definition, purpose & examples. Retrieved on 28th April, 2016 from http://www.study,com/.../correlational-research-definition-purpose-examples.html

Krishnakumar, R. & Lalitha, S. (2014). A Study on emotional intelligence and occupational stress. International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research, 2, 21-24. Available at http://ijmcr.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/paper19633-636.pdf

Maraichelvi, A. & Rajan, S. (2013). The relationship between emotional intelligence and the academic performance among final year under graduates. Universal Journal of Psychology, 1 (2), 41-45. Retrieved from http://www.hrpub.org.DOI: 10.13189/ujp.2013.010203

Maraichelvi, A. & Rajan, S. (2013). The relationship between emotional intelligence and the academic performance among final year under graduates. Universal Journal of Psychology, 1 (2), 41-45. Retrieved from http://www.hrpub.org.DOI: 10.13189/ujp.2013.010203

Masrek, M. N. Abdullah-Sani, M. J. & Jamaludin, A. (2012). Emotional Intelligence and Occupational Performance among Malaysian Librarians. Malaysia: Research Management Institute (RMI) Universiti Teknologi Mara.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2014). Performance Development: Employee Recognition. Retrieved from

http://hrweb.mit.edu/performance-development/employee-recognition on 18/09/14.

Mathis. R. L. & Jackson, J. H. (2003). Human Resource Management, (10th edition). Sg: Thomson South-Western.

Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (1990).Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: A component of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54, 772 781.

Messersmith, J. (2007). Managing work-life conflict among information technology workers. Human Resource Management Journal, 46, 429–451

Mill, J., & Lodge, D. (2006). Affect, emotional intelligence and librarian-user interaction. Library Review, 55(9), 587-597.

Murray, R. A. (1999). Job satisfaction of professional and para-professional library staff at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Unpublished Master’s paper for the M.S. in L.S. degree.

Nachimias, D. & Nachimias, C.F. (1987). Research Methods in the Social Sciences, (3rd edition). New York: St. Martin's.

National Universities Commission (2015). List Of Nigerian Universities and Years Founded. Retrieved on 24/06/15 from http://www.nuc.edu.ng/pages/universities.asp

Nikolaou, I. & Tsaousis, I. (2002). Emotional intelligence in the workplace: Exploring its Effects on Occupational Stress and Organisational Commitment. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 10 (4),327 – 342.

Nwosu, C.O., Ugwoegbu, U. &Okeke, I. (2013).Levels of Motivation as Correlates of Librarians’ Task Performance in University Libraries In South – East, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 8 (4), 81- 83.

Ogungbeni, J., Ogungbo, W. &Yaya, J.A. (2013).Emotional Intelligence, Job Satisfaction and Librarians' Performance. Journal of Research in Education and Society, 4(1), 53- 61.

Ogunsanwo, G.A. (2012, December). You and Your Job: Attitude Required for Improving Performance and Productivity. Paper presented at the Training Workshop for Junior Staff of Library Unit of Yaba College of Technology. Held at Center for Management Development (CMD), Magodo, Lagos, December.

Okonedo, S., Popoola, S.O., Emmanuel, S.O. &Bamigboye, O.B. (2015).Correlational Analysis of Demographic Factors, Self-Concept and Research Productivity of Librarians in Public Universities in South-West, Nigeria.International Journal of Library Science, 4 (3), 43-52. DOI: 10.5923/j.library.20150403.01

Olomolaiye, P. O., Wahab, K., & Price, A. (1998). Problems Influencing Craftsman Productivity in Nigeria. Building Environment Journal, 22 (4), 317-323.

Orluwene, G. W. & Wachikwu, T. (2014).Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence as Predictors of Job Involvement among Teachers. International Journal of Development and Emerging Economics, 2 (1), 8-18. Available online at:


Parham, D. (2014). Definition, importance and determinants of productivity. Retrieved on 05/04/16 from http://s3.amazonaws.com/zanran_storage/economics.adelaide.edu.au/ContentPages/2523797741.pdf

Petrides, K. V. Niven, L. & Mouskounti, T. (2006). The trait emotional intelligence of ballet dancers and musicians. Psicothema, 18: 101-107.

Rahgozar, H. et al (2012). A Study of the relation between emotional intelligence and decision making style (case study: school principals' of Shiraz City). Journal of Basic Applied Scientific Research, 2 (1 2), 12115-12120.

Rizi, R. M., Azadi, A., Farsani, M. E. &Aroufzad, S. (2013). Relationship between leadership styles and job satisfaction among physical education organizations employees. European Journal of Sports and Exercise Science, 2 (1), 7-11. Available online at www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com

Rosier, R.H. (1996).The Competency Model Handbook, volume 3. Boston: Linkage

Rozell, E. J., Pettijohn, C. E. & Parker, R. S. (2004). Customer‐oriented selling: Exploring the roles of emotional intelligence and organizational commitment. Psychology & Marketing, 21(6), 405-424.

Russell, B. (2008). The Analysis of Mind. San Francisco: Biblio Bazaar, LLC

Sahdat, M., Sajjad, S.I., Farooq, M.U. & Rehman, K. (2011). Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Productiviy: A Conceptual Study. World Applied Sciences Journal, 15 (6), 821-825, ISSN 1818-4952.

Sinclair, R.R., Tucker, J.S., Cullen, J.C., & Wright, C. (2005).Performance differences among four organizational commitment profiles. Journal of Applied Psychology 90 (6), 1280-1287.

Singh, D. (2005). Emotional Intelligence at Work: A Professional Guide. New Delhi: Response Book.

Singh, J.K. & Jain, M. (2013). A Study of employee’s job satisfaction and its impact on their performance. Journal of Indian Research, 1(4), 105- 111.

Sirca, N.T., Babnik, K. &Breznik, K. (2012).The relationship between human resource development system and job satisfaction. Management Knowledge and Learning International Conference, 977 – 987.

Stock, B. (2010).Emotional Intelligence Competencies. Retrieved on 05/10/14 from


Suleiman, W. (2013).A Study of causes of poor attitude to work among workers of both public and private sectors organizations in Bauchi State-Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3 (7), 143-152. Available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v3-i7/16. DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v3-i7/16.

Swanson, A. & Zobisch, P. (2014).Emotional Intelligence Understanding among Real Estate Professionals. Global Journal of Business Research, 8 (5), 9-16. Available Online at: www.Theibfr.Org

Vijayabanu, U. & Swaminathan, V.D. (2016).Relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment on coping with organization change. International Journal of Information Research and Review, 3 (1), 1636-1639.

Vyas, K. (2005). Emotional Intelligence Competencies. Retrieved from http://www.kartikvyas.com on 05/10/14

Wae, M. (2010).Inter Relationship Between Personality, Emotional Intelligence, and Job Satisfaction of Bank Employees. Unpublished PhD thesis, University Utara Malaysia.

Woods, C. (2014). Job Enrichment: Definition, Advantages, Disadvantages & Examples. Retrieved on 08/09/14 from http://www.education-portal.com/.../job-enrichment-definition-advantages-disadvant

Yahyazadeh-Jeloudar, S. & Lotfi-Goodarzi, F. (2012). Teachers’ emotional intelligence and its relationship with job satisfaction. Advances in Education, 1 (1), 4-9

Yamoah, E.E. (2013). Relationship between compensation and employee productivity. Singapore Journal of Business Economics and Management Studies, 2 (1), 110-114.

Yaya, J.A. (2007). Job Motivation and Emotional Intelligence as correlates of Librarians’ Job Performance in selected University Libraries in South West, Nigeria. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Yong, B. (2013). Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Motivation, Integrity, Spirituality, Mentoring and Servant Leadership practices. Arts and Sciences Journal, 2013, 1 – 6, Article ID: ASSJ – 67. Available online at: http://astonjournals.com/assj.

Zaki, A.R.; Hasan, S.S. &Manzoor, M. (2012).Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Employees’ Leadership Skills – Strategic Approach towards Organizational Stability. Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 4(3), 32-40. Retrieved from http://www.iosrjournals.org on18/10/14.

Zeidner, M., Matthews, G. & Roberts, R.D. (2009).What We Know About Emotional Intelligence: How it Affects Learning, Work, Relationships, and Our Mental Health. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Ziv, T. (2014). What is Emotional Competence? Retrieved on 05/10/14 from http://www.drtaliaziv.com/9.html

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejoe.v0i0.186


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2016-2023. European Journal of Open Education and E-learning Studies (ISSN 2501-9120) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).