Nurhidayu Abdul Kadir, Noor Hanim Rahmat, Halimatus Saadiah Abdul Wahid, Nur Syakirah Dzuradeen


A blog is used on online platforms for the author to communicate with his/her readers in a unique way. Metadiscourse markers are often used in the writing and these markers help writers share their feelings and attitudes towards the issues they are writing about. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of metadiscourse markers in a personal blog commenting on the positive side of COVID-19. Hyland’s (2005) model of metadiscourse was used to analyse the data. The results revealed that the writer employed interactional markers more than interactive. The in-depth analysis also showed that self-mentions were the most frequent interactional markers that occurred in the text, and the least were boosters, attitude markers and engagement markers. Meanwhile, the use of transitions has the highest frequency of interactive markers, followed by code glosses. To conclude, there were implications drawn from these findings, such as the high tendency of the writers of personal blogs to use interactional markers compared to interactive, as one of the persuasive efforts and the use of transitions to better organize their ideas in order for the text to be more coherent to readers.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



metadiscourse analysis, interactional markers, interactive markers, personal blog, attitudes

Full Text:



Azlan. A. (2020, March 25). COVID-19 Exposes Us, In A Good Way. Aiman Azlan, Youth Mentor. Retrieved from https://aimanazlan.com/COVID-19-exposes-us-in-a-good-way/.

Alkhathlan, M. (2019). Metadiscourse in Academic Writing: An Investigation of Saudi EFL Students' Research Articles. Linguistics and Literature Studies, Vol 7(5), pp 220-225. Retrieved from http://www.hrpub.org/.

Amiryousefi, M., & Rasekh, A., E. (2010). Metadiscourse: Definitions, Issues and Its Implications for English Teachers, English Language Teaching, Vol. 3(4),pp 159-167. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov./fulltext/EJ1081977.pdf.

Amir, Z., Abidin, H., Darus, S., & Ismail, K. (2012). Gender Differences in the Language Use of Malaysian Teen Bloggers. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp 105-124. Retrieved from http://ejournal.ukm.my/gema/article/view/24.

Bloor, M. & Bloor, T. (2013). Practice of Critical Discourse Analysis: An Introduction. Routledge. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.my/books.

Bowen, G. (2009). Document Analysis as a Qualitative Research Method. Qualitative Research Journal, Vol 9(2),pp 27-40. Retrieved from https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.3316/QRJ0902027/full/html.

Boyd, D. (2006). A Blogger’s Blog: Exploring the Definition of a Medium. Reconstruction 6(4). Retrieved from http://reconstruction.eserver.org/064/boyd.shtmlJournal.9.27-40.10.3316/QRJ0902027.

Bronstein, J. (2013). Personal blogs as online presences on the internet. Aslib Proceedings, new Information Perspectives, Vol 65(2), 1, pp 61–181. Retrieved from http://emeraldinsight.com/0001.253X.htm.

Chen, G. M. (2012). Why do women write personal blogs? Satisfying needs for self-disclosure and affiliation tell part of the story. Computers in Human Behaviour, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 171-80.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Fa, L., (2012). Identification and Functions of Metadiscourse, US-China Foreign Language, David Publishing, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp 846-854. Retrieved from http://wyx.nclg.com.cn/wz/lw/2.Identification%20and%20Functions%20of%20Metadiscourse.pdf.

Herring, S. C., Scheidt, L. A., Kouper, I., & Wright, E. (2007). Longitudinal content analysis of blogs: 2003‐2004. In M. Tremayne (Ed.), Blogging, citizenship, and the future of media (pp. 1–20). New York, NY: Routledge.

Herring, S. C., Scheidt, L. A., Bonus, S., & Wright, E. (2004). Bridging the gap: a genre analysis of weblogs. Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS’04). Retrieved from http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2004.1265271.

Hollenbaugh, E. E. (2011). Motives for maintaining personal journal blogs. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, Vol. 14 No. 1-2, pp. 13-20. Retrieved from https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/cyber.2009.0403.

Hyland, K., & Tse, P. (2004). Metadiscourse in academic writing: a reappraisal, Applied Linguistics, Oxford University Press.

Hyland, K. (2005). Metadiscourse: Exploring interaction in writing. London: Continuum.

Jing, W., Yan, L., Ting, Z., & Zhiwei, G. (2016). Studies on Metadiscourse since the 3rd Millennium. Journal of Education and Practice. Vol. 7 (9), pp 194 – 204. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1095757.pdf.

Nardi, B. A., Schiano, D. J., Gumbrecht, M., & Swartz, L. (2004). Why we blog. Communications of the ACM, Vol. 47 No. 12, pp. 41-6. Retrieved from https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/1035134.1035163.

Nordquist, R. (2020). Definition and Examples of Discourse. ThoughtCo. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/discourse-language-term-1690464.

Nordquist, R. (2018). What is Metadiscourse? ThoughtCo. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/metadiscourse-writing-and-speech-1691381.

Phillips, C. (2012) Four Modes of Discourse. Proofread Out Loud. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/a/proofreadoutloud.com/www/four-modes-of-discourse.

Puschmann, C. (2013). Blogging. Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1515/9783110214468.83.

Puschmann, C. (2010). The corporate blog as an emerging genre of computer-mediated communication: Features, constraints, discourse situation (Doctoral dissertation). Universitätsverlag Göttingen. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.my/books.

Tarrayo, V. N. (2014). Exploring Interactions in L2 Blogging: Metadiscourse in Philippine Investigative Journalism Blogs. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies, Vol 2(3), pp 35-53, Retrieved from http://www.eltsjournal.org.

Wei, L. (2009). Filter Blogs vs. Personal Journals: Understanding the Knowledge Production Gap on the Internet. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, pp. 532-558. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01452.x.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2018-2023. European Journal of Applied Linguistics Studies (ISSN 2602 - 0254 / ISSN-L 2602 - 0254). All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.