THE CONSEQUENCES OF CYBERBULLYING IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR ON EMPLOYEES’ PRODUCTIVITY IN MALAYSIA: MEDIATING ROLE OF JOB STRESS AND MODERATING ROLE OF CO-WORKERS SUPPORT

Kumaran Kanapathipillai, Nur Nadiah Mahbob

Abstract


The ultimate purpose of this moderated mediation study is to get an in-depth cognition of how stress as a mediator influences the relationship between cyberbullying and employees’ productivity in the manufacturing sector in Malaysia. Additionally, this research scrutinised the moderating effect of co-workers’ support in the manufacturing sector between stress and employees’ productivity. The results of this study ascertained that cyberbullying creates tremendous stress, affecting the employees’ productivity. This research confirms that when stress starts manifesting in employees, it significantly affects the relationship between cyberbullying and the productivity of employees. It was also evident that without stress as the mediating variable, the significant association between cyberbullying and the employees’ productivity would not transpire. Subsequently, the moderating factor co-workers’ support illustrated those fellow employees who render their support could significantly buffer the stress experienced at the workplace and heighten the productivity of their colleagues. Overall, this research has offered precious current knowledge on the significant impact of cyberbullying on employees’ productivity and why management and employees should curtail this heinous act. This research has also revealed the crucial roles co-workers play in shielding their fellow workers from the stress that could hamper their productivity. The manufacturing sector is the backbone of the Malaysian economy; as such, this research could significantly furnish managers with the knowledge of why improving the mutual support among co-workers is vital as it could protect them from the monstrous cyberbullying activities of cybercrooks, increase productivity and eventually create an innocuous work environment.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


cyberbullying, employees’ productivity, stress, co-workers’ support, manufacturing sector, moderated mediation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aasia, M., Hadia, A. & Sabita, M. (2014). Investigating the Impact of Work Stress on Job Performance: A Study on Textile Sector of Faisalabad. Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 2(1) 20 – 28.

Agervold, M., & Mikkelsen, E. G. (2004). Relationships Between Bullying, Psychosocial Work Environment and Individual Stress Reactions. Work & Stress, 18(4), 336-351. doi:10.1080/02678370412331319794

Albar-Marin, M. J., & Garcia-Ramirez, M. (2005). Social Support and Emotional Exhaustion among Hospital Nursing Staff. The European Journal of Psychiatry, 19(2).

Alhujailli, A., Karwowski, W., Wan, T. T. H., & Hancock, P. (2020). Affective and Stress Consequences of Cyberbullying. Symmetry 12: 1536. doi:10.3390/sym12091536

Alias, N. E., Rohmanan, N. H., Ismail, S., Koe, W. L., & Othman, R. (2018). Factors Influencing Turnover Intention in a Malaysian Manufacturing Company. KnE Social Sciences, 771- 787.

Alias, N. E., Sehat, N. S., Othman, R., Marmaya, N. H., & Koe, W. L. (2019). Determinants of Job Stress in Affecting Employees’ Life: A Study on the Malaysian Manufacturing Sector. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 9(7), 614-627.

Aune, N. M. (2009). Cyberbullying. Masters Research Paper, The Graduate School of Wisconsin-Stout. Retrieved from: https://www2.uwstout.edu

Babin, B. J., & Boles, J. S. (1996). The Effects of Perceived Co-worker Involvement and Supervisor Support on Service Provider Role Stress, Performance and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Retailing, 72(1): 57-76.

Balakrishnan, V. (2015). Cyberbullying among young adults in Malaysia: The roles of gender, age and Internet frequency, Computers in Human Behavior,46: 149-57.

Barlett, C. P. (2015). Anonymously Hurting Others Online: The Effect of Anonymity on Cyberbullying Frequency. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 4(2): 70–79.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6): 1173-1182.

Barron, O. (2003). Workplace Violence and Bullying: Your Rights, What to Do and Where to Go for Help. Melbourne: Jobwatch and WorkSafe Victoria. Retrieved from: https://www.daru.org.au

Baruch, Y. (2005). Bullying On the Net: Adverse Behaviour on Email and Its Impact. Information and Management, 42: 361-371.

Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative Fit Indexes in Structural Models. Psychological Bulletin, 107: 238-246.

Bentler, P., & Bonett, D. (1980). Significance Tests and Goodness-of-Fit in Analysis of Covariance Structures. Psychological Bulletin. 88: 588-606.

Bonanno, R. A., & Hymel, S. (2013). Cyber Bullying and Internalizing Difficulties: Above and Beyond the Impact of Traditional Forms of Bullying. Journal of Youth Adolescent Health, 42: 685–697.

Bytyqi, F., Reshani, V., & Hasani, V. (2010). Work Stress, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment Among Public Employees Before Privatization. European Journal of Social Sciences,18(1): 156-162.

Cho-Hee, Bong-Cha. (2021). Stress And Its Causes and Its Effect on The Performance of The Organization's Employees. 10.13140/Rg.2.2.29329.66405.

Choi, J., & Park, M. (2019). Effects Of Nursing Organisational Culture on Face-To-Face Bullying and Cyberbullying in The Workplace. Journal of Clinical Nursing. doi: 10.1111/jocn.14843.

D’Cruz, P. (2016).Cyberbullying at Work: Experiences of Indian Employees. in Webster, J. and Randle, K. (Eds), Virtual Workers and the Global Labour Market, Springer, Netherland.

D’Cruz, P., & Noronha, E. (2013). Navigating The Extended Reach: Target Experiences of Cyberbullying at Work. Information and Organization, 23: 324-343.

Daniel, C. O. (2020). Effects Of Job Stress on Employee’s Performance. Journal of Business, Management and Social Research, 6(2): 375-382.

DeFrank, R. S., and J. M. Ivancevich. (1998). Stress On the Job: An Executive Update. The Academy of Management Executive: 55-66.

Dehue, F. (2013). Cyberbullying Research: New Perspectives and Alternative Methodologies. Introduction To the Special Issue. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology,23(1), 1-6. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/casp.2139.

Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOSM). (2021). Index of Industrial Production, Malaysia 2021. Retrieved from: https://www.dosm.gov.my.

Didden, R., Scholte, R. H. J., Korzilius, H., De Moor, J. M. H., Vermeulen, A., O’Reilly, M. (2009). Cyberbullying Among Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disability in Special Education Settings. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 12: 146–151.

Dooley, J. J., Pyżalski, J., & Cross, D. (2009). Cyberbullying Versus Face-To-Face Bullying: A Theoretical and Conceptual Review. Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 182–188.

Ehsan, M., & Ali, K. (2019). The Impact of Work Stress on Employee Productivity: Based in the Banking sector of Faisalabad, Pakistan. International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development, 4(6): 32 – 50.

Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., & Notelaers, G. (2009). Measuring Exposure to Bullying and Harassment at Work: Validity, Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of The Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. Work & Stress, 23(1): 24-44.

Einarsen, S., Matthiesen, S., & Skogstad, A. (1998). Bullying, Burnout and Well-Being Among Assistant Nurses. Journal of Occupational Health and Safety Australia and New Zealand, 14: 563-568.

Ekienabor, E. E. (2016). Impact Of Job Stress on Employees' Productivity and Commitment. International Journal for Research in Business Management and Accounting 2(5): 124-133

Enyonam, P. A., Opoku, A. G., Addai, K. E., & Batola, D. (2017). The Effect of Occupational Stress on Job Performance at Aspet A. Company Limited. Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(8): 1-17.

Farley, S., Coyne, I., Sprigg, C., Axtell, C., & Subramanian, G. (2015). Exploring The Impact of Workplace Cyberbullying on Trainee Doctors. Medical Education, Vol. 49(4): 436-443.

Farley, S., Coyne, I., Sprigg, C., Axtell, C., & Subramanian, G. (2015). Exploring The Impact of Workplace Cyberbullying on Trainee Doctors. Medical Education, 49(4): 436–443.

Faryadi, Q. (2011). Cyber Bullying and Academic Performance. International Journal of Computational Engineering Research, 1(1): 2250 – 3005.

Fass, R. D., Bishop, J. W., & Glissmeyer, M. (2007). Perceived Co-worker Support and Task Interdependence in Law Enforcement: A Test of The Mediating Effect of Felt Responsibilities. Retrieved from: http://www.swdsi.org.

Fink, G. (2017). Stress: Concepts, Definition and History. In Reference Module. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology: 1–9.

Gefen, D., Straub, D., & Boudreau, M. C. (2000). Structural Equation Modeling and Regression: Guidelines for Research Practice. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 4(1): 7-21.

Giumetti, G. W., Hatfield, A. L., Scisco, J. L., Schroeder, A. N., Muth, E. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (2013). What A Rude E-Mail! Examining The Differential Effects of Incivility Versus Support on Mood, Energy, Engagement, And Performance in An Online Context. Journal of Occupational. Health Psychology,18: 297–309

Glambek, M., Matthiesen, S., Hetland, J., & Einarsen, S. (2014). Workplace Bullying as An Antecedent to Job Insecurity and Intention to Leave: A 6-Month Prospective Study. Human Resource Management Journal, 24(3): 255–268.

Gonzalez-Cabrera, J., Calvete, E., Leon-Mejía, A., Perez-Sancho, C., Peinado, J. M. (2017). Relationship Between Cyberbullying Roles, Cortisol Secretion and Psychological Stress. Computers in Human Behavior 70: 153-160

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Babin, B. J., Black, W. C. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective; Pearson, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, (7).

Hammad, M., & Awan, S., & Chaudhry, A., & Imdadullah, M. (2012). Investigating Stress and Employee Performance in Traffic Police. 10.7763/IPEDR.

Hansen, A. M., Hogh, A., Persson, R., Karlson, B., Garde, A. H., & Orbæk, P. (2006). Original Article: Bullying at Work, Health Outcomes, And Physiological Stress Response. Journal Of Psychosomatic Research: 6063-72.

Harold, C. M., & Holtz, B. C. (2014). The Effects of Passive Leadership on Workplace Incivility. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(1): 16–38.

Hayes, A. F., & Rockwood, N.J. (2020). Conditional Process Analysis: Concepts, Computation, And Advances in Modeling the Contingencies of Mechanisms. American Behavioral Scientist, 64, 19-54.

Henry, O. & Evans, A. J. (2008). Occupational Stress in Organisations. Journal of Management Research. 8(3): 123-135.

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Cyberbullying: An Exploratory Analysis of Factors Related to Offending and Victimization. Deviant Behaviour, 29: 129–156.

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2021). Cyberbullying: Identification, Prevention and Response. Cyberbullying Research Center. http://cyberbullying.org

Hodson, R. (1997). Group Relations at Work. Work and Occupations, 24(4).

Huang, J., Zhong, Z., Zhang, H., & Li, L. (2021). Cyberbullying In Social Media And Online Games Among Chinese College Students And Its Associated Factors. International Journal of Environmental. Research and Public Health, 18: 4819. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094819.

Iftikhar, M., Qureshi, M. I., Qayyum, S., Fatima, I., Sriyanto, S., Indrianti, Y., Khan, A., Dana, L. P. (2021). Impact of Multifaceted Workplace Bullying on the Relationships between Technology Usage, Organisational Climate and Employee Physical and Emotional Health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, 3207. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063207.

Jain, R. (2020). A Heinous Act: Cyberbullying. Retrieved from: https://www.notebooknb.com.

Jang, H., Song, J., & Kim, R. (2014). Does The Online Bully-Victimization Influence Cyberbullying Behavior Among Youths? Application Of General Strain Theory. Computers in Human Behaviour, 31: 85–93.

Johanis, M. A., Bakar, A. R. A., & Fauziah Ismail, F. (2020). Cyber-Bullying Trends Using Social Media Platform: An Analysis through Malaysian Perspectives. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing: 1-5.

Joiner, T. A. (2007). Total Quality Management and Performance: The Role of Organizational Support and Co-worker Support. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 24(6).

Joshi, R. M., Sanghavi, S. J., Upadhyaya, D. P., Chauhan, A., & Halvadia, S. (2012). Effect Of Examination Stress on The Plasma Cortisol Level. National Journal of Medical Research, 2(4): 35–38.

Juvonen, J., & Gross, E. F. (2008). Extending The School Grounds? |Bullying Experiences in Cyberspace. Journal of School Health, 78(9): 496-505.

Kalyar, M. N., Saeed, M., Usta, A. and Shafique, I. (2021), Workplace Cyberbullying and Creativity: Examining the Roles of Psychological Distress and Psychological Capital. Management Research Review,44(4): 607-624. https://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-03-2020-0130.

Karasek, R. A., Triantis, K. P., & Chaudhry, S. S. (1982). Co-worker and Supervisor Support as Moderators of Associations between Task Characteristics and Mental Strain. Journal of Occupational Behaviour, 3: 181-200.

Karthikeyan, C. (2020). Workplace Cyberbullying and Its Impact on Productivity. Handbook of Research on Cyberbullying and Online Harassment in the Workplace. IGI GLOBAL: 197 – 209.

Katzer, C., Fetchenhauer, D., Belschak, F. (2009). Cyberbullying: Who Are the Victims? J. Media Psychol. Theor. Methods Appl. 2009, 21: 25–36.

Kaul, M., & Lakey, B. (2003) Where is the Support in Perceived Support? The Role of Generic Relationship Satisfaction and Enacted Support in Perceived Support's Relation to Low Distress. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 22(1): 59-78.

Khattak, J. K., Khan, M. S., Haq, A. U., Arif, M., & Minhas, A. A. (2011). Occupational Stress and Burnouts in Pakistan’s Banking Sector. African Journal of Business Management., 5(3): 810-817.

Khine, A. T., Saw, Y. M., Htut, Z. Y., Khaing, C. T., Soe, H. Z., Swe, K. K., Thike, T., Htet, H., Saw, T. N., & Cho, S. M. (2020). Assessing Risk Factors and Impact of Cyberbullying Victimization Among University Students in Myanmar: A Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS ONE 2020, 15, e0227051

Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2013). Psychological, Physical, And Academic Correlates of Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(1): 13–20.

Kowalski, R. M., Giumetti, G. W., Schroeder, A. N., & Lattanner, M. R. (2014). Bullying in the digital age: A critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4): 1073-1137. doi:10.1037/a0035618.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. Springer: New York, NY, USA.

Lee, C., & Shin, N. (2017). Prevalence Of Cyberbullying and Predictors of Cyberbullying Perpetration Among Korean Adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 68: 352-358.

Leka, S., Griffiths, A., & Cox, T. (2003). Systematic Problem Approaches for Employers, Managers and Trade Union Representative. Switzerland: World Health Organization

Levy, P. E. (2006). Industrial and Organisational Psychology: Understanding the Workplace. (2nd ed.) Boston; Houghton Mifflin Company.

Lewis, D. (2004). Bullying At Work: The Impact of Shame Among University and College Lecturers. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 32(3): 281-299.

Leymann, H. (1996). The Content and Development of Mobbing at Work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5: 165-184

Li, Q. (2007). New Bottle but Old Wine: A Research of Cyberbullying In Schools. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(4): 1777–1791.

Lindorff, M. (2001). Are They Lonely at the Top? Social Relationships and Social Support among Australian Managers. Work and Stress, 15: 274-282.

Mackay, A. W. (2012). Respectful and Responsible Relationships: There’s No App for That. Report for the Nova Scotia Task Force on Bullying and Cyberbullying. Halifax, NS: Government of Nova Scotia.

Madden, C., & Loh, J. (2018). Workplace Cyberbullying and Bystander Helping Behaviour. The International Journal of Human Resource Management:1-25.

Makhulo, J. N. (2018). Cyberbullying: Effect on Workplace Production. African International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 2(1): 24-39.

Makoni, M. K., Mutanana, N. (2016). Effective Management of Occupational Stress As Perceived By Workers At A Manufacturing Company In Zimbabwe. International Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Studies, 3(5): 45-52.

Malaysian Industrial Development Authority (MIDA). (2021, May 6). Moody’s Analytics: Optimistic Outlook for Malaysia’s Trade, Industrial Production. Retrieved from: https://www.mida.gov.my/mida-news.

McIntosh, N. J. (1991). Identification and Investigation of Properties of Social Support. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 12: 201-217.

Menesini, E., & Nocentini, A. (2009). Cyberbullying Definition and Measurement: Some Critical Considerations. Zeitschrift Fur Psychologie-journal of Psychology - Z PSYCHOL. 217: 230-232.

Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G. C., & Guarino, A. J. (2005). Applied Multivariate Research: Design and Interpretation. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

Michel, W., & Heirman, W. (2011). Cyber bullying: Predicting Victimisation and Perpetration, Children & Society, 25(1): 59-72.

Mikkelsen, E. G., & Einarsen, S. (2002). Basic Assumptions and Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Among Victims of Bullying at Work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11(1): 87-111.

Miller, J. D., & Hufstedler, S. M. (2009). Cyberbullying Knows No Borders. Australian Teacher Education Association, Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Teacher Education Association (ATEA) (Albury, Jun 28-Jul 1, 2009). (ED524610).

Muhammad, R., Nazir, A., Riaz, M. Murtaza, G., Khan, T., &Firdous, H. (2016). Impact of Job Stress on Employee Job Satisfaction. International Review of Management and Business Research. 5(4): 1370-1384.

Muhonen, T., Jonsson, S. & Backstrom, M. (2017). Consequences of Cyberbullying Behaviour in Working Life: The Mediating Roles of Social Support and Social Organisational Climate. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 10(5): 376-390.

Nag, A. (2016, June 17). 16 Factors that Lead to Poor Performance at the Workplace. [Blog Post] Retrieved from http://smartmove.safetyline.wa.gov.au

Namie, G., & Namie, R. (2003). The Bully at Work: What You Can Do to Stop The Hurt And reclaim Your Dignity On The Job. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks.

Naqvi, S. M. H., Khan, M. A., Kant, A. Q., & Khan, S. N. (2013). Job Stress and Employees’ Productivity: Case of Azad Kashmir Public Health Sector. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 5(3): 525-42.

Needham, A. (2003). Workplace Bullying: The Costly Business Secret. New York: Penguin Group.

Ng, T. W. H., & Sorenson, K. L. (2008). Toward a Further Understanding of the Relationships Between Perceptions of Support and Work Attitudes. Group and Organisation Management, 33(3).

Nortajuddin, A. (2020). Cyberbullying On the Rise. The Asean Post. Retrieved from: https://theaseanpost.com/article/cyberbullying-rise.

Ojanen, T. T., Boonmongkon, P., Samakkeekarom, R., Samoh, N., & Guadamuz, T.E. (2015). Connections Between Online Harassment and Offline Violence Among Youth in Central Thailand. Child Abus. Negl., 44: 159–169.

Okeke, M. N., Ojan, E., & Oboreh, J. C. (2016). Effects Of Stress on Employee Productivity. International Journal of Management, 2(11): 38-49

Olweus, D., Limber, S., & Mihalic, S. F. (1999). Blueprints for violence prevention, book nine: Bullying prevention program. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, 12(6): 256-273.

Peng, Z.; Klomek, A. B., Li, L., Su, X., Sillanmäki, L., Chudal, R., & Sourander, A. (2019). Associations Between Chinese Adolescents Subjected to Traditional and Cyber Bullying and Suicidal Ideation, Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts. BMC Psychiatry, 19: 324.

Pieschl, S., Porsch, T., Kahl, T., & Klockenbusch, R. (2013). Relevant Dimensions of Cyberbullying – Results from Two Experimental Studies. J Appl Dev Psychol, 34(5): 241–52

Privitera, C., & Campbell, M.A. (2009). Cyberbullying: The New Face of Workplace Bullying? CyberPsychology and Behavior, 12: 395-400.

Rosalie, I. S., & Singaravelloo, K., (2020). Occupational Stress and Employee Performance in a Malaysian Local Government Authority. Journal of Economics and Policy, 3(1).

Samnani, A. K., & Singh, P. (2012). 20 Years of Workplace Bullying Research: A Review of The Antecedents and Consequences of Bullying in The Workplace. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(6): 581–589.

Sarkar, A. (2015). Step-By-Step To Stopping the Cyberbully. Human Resource Management International Digest, 23(7): 31–33.

Sathasivam, K. V, Hj. A. Malek, D. M. D., & Abdullah, P. D. A. (2015). Organizational Stressors and Job Stress Among Malaysian Managers : The Moderating Role of Personality Traits. International Journal of Social Work, 2(1), 1–21.

Shehzad, K. (2011). Work Life Policies and Job Stress as Determinants of Turn Over Intentions of Customer Service Representatives in Pakistan. European Journal of Social Sciences, 19(3): 403-411.

Slavich, G. M. (2016). Life stress and health: A review of conceptual issues and recent findings. Teaching of Psychology, 43(4): 346–355.

Slonje, R., Smith, P. K., & Frisén, A. (2012). Processes Of Cyberbullying, And Feelings of Remorse by Bullies: A Pilot Study. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9: 244–59.

Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S., & Tippett, N. (2008). Cyberbullying: Its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49: 376–385.

Snyman, R., & Loh, J. (2015). Cyberbullying At Work: The Mediating Role of Optimism Between Cyberbullying and Job Outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior, 53: 161–168.

Stale, E., Helge, H., & Cary, C. (2003). Bullying And Emotional Abuse in The Workplace: International Perspectives in Research and Practice. Taylor and Francis.

Staude-Müller, F., Hansen, B., & Voss, M. (2012). How Stressful Is Online Victimization? Effects Of Victim's Personality and Properties of The Incident. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(2): 260-274.

Subbulaxmi, S. (2002). Productivity and Stress. Management, 2(3): 26-28.

Szalma, J. L., & Hancock, P. A. (2011). Noise Effects on Human Performance: A Meta-Analytic Synthesis. Psychological,137: 682–707.

Tan, S. Y., & Yip, A. (2018). Hans Selye (1907-1982): Founder of The Stress Theory. Singapore Medical Journal, 59(4): 170-171.

Thye, L. L. (2017). Investing in the mental health of workers. National Institute of Occupational, Safety and Health. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh

Tucker, L. R., Lewis, C. (1973). The Reliability Coefficient for Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis. Psychometrika, 38: 1-10.

Tuckey, M. R. (2016). Like A Cancer of The Workplace, Bullying Is a Symptom of Dysfunction. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com.

Van Laer, T. (2014). The Means to Justify the End: Combating Cyber Harassment in Social Media. Journal of Business Ethics, 123(1): 85–98.

Vranjes, I., Baillien, E., Vandebosch, H., Erreygers, S., & De Witte, H. (2018). Kicking Someone in Cyberspace When They Are Down: Testing the Role of Stressor Evoked Emotions on Exposure to Workplace Cyberbullying. Work and Stress, Vol. 32(4): 379-399.

West, B., Foster, M., Levin, A., Edmison, J., & Robibero, D. (2014). Cyberbullying at Work: In Search of Effective Guidance: School of Professional Communication, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada; 07.

West, B., Foster, M., Levin, A., Edmison, J., & Robibero, D. (2014). Cyberbullying At Work: In Search of Effective Guidance. Laws, 3(3): 598–617. doi:10.3390/laws3

Whitney, I., & Smith, P. K. (1993). A Survey of The Nature and Extent of Bullying in Junior/Middle and Secondary Schools. Educational Research, 35(1): 3-25.

Wong-Lo, M., Bullock, L. M. (2011). Digital aggression: Cyberworld meets school bullies. Part of a special issue: Cyberbullying By: Preventing School Failure, 55(2), 64-70. DOI: 10.1080/1045988X.2011.539429.

Woodrow, C., & Guest, D. E. (2014). When Good HR Gets Bad Results: Exploring the Challenge of HR Implementation in The Case of Workplace Bullying. Human Resource Management Journal 24(1): 38–56.

Wright, M. F. (2018). Cyberstalking Victimization, Depression, And Academic Performance: The Role of Perceived Social Support from Parents. Cyberpsychology, Behaviour, and Social Networking, 21(2): 110-116, doi: 10.1089/cyber.2016.0742.

Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2007). Prevalence and Frequency of Internet Harassment Instigation : Implications for Adolescent Health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 189–195. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.03.005

Yusof, A. (2021, April 9). Manufacturing to spur Malaysia’s Industrial Production: Moody’s Analytics. New Straits Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nst.com.my/business.

Zapf, D. (1999). Organisational, Work Group Related and Personal Causes of Mobbing/Bullying at Work. International Journal of Manpower, 20(1/2): 70-85. doi.org/10.1108/01437729910268669

Zapf, D., & Einarsen, S. (2001). Bullying In the Workplace: Recent Trends in Research and Practice - An Introduction. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10: 369-373.

Zhou, J., & George, J. M. (2001). When Job Dissatisfaction Leads to Creativity: Encouraging the Expression of Voice. The Academy of Management Journal, 44, 682-696.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejhrms.v5i3.1145

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 European Journal of Human Resource Management Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal Of Human Resource Management Studies (ISSN 2601-1972) is a registered trademark. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


 

Hit counter