Rotsen T. Cuevas, John Vianne B. Murcia


The decision to the selection of managers comes with the consideration of several factors, especially in a cooperative organization. With this, the study was conducted to provide a scenario on how cooperatives perform when it comes to the recruitment of a manager and identify the relative importance of the features or attributes (management style, educational attainment, experience, and areas of expertise) in determining cooperatives’ best and least-preferred manager. A total of 400 members of the cooperative Board of Directors responded to a survey which employed 20 software-generated placards. Using a metric conjoint analysis, this study found out that as far as cooperatives in Mindanao are concerned, the areas of expertise of a manager is the most important attribute, while the educational attainment of a manager is the least important attribute. On aggregate, a manager with expertise in member relations is most preferred, while a manager that has educational attainment of a doctoral degree is the least preferred attribute level. The additive model of conjoint analysis further revealed that the most preferable manager is one that has a democratic style of management, holder of bachelor’s degree, with two to four years of experience and has an expertise in member relations, while the least preferred combination is a manager that has a management style by walking around or listening type, holder of bachelor’s degree, one year or less experienced, and has an expertise in marketing and promotions. Implications of this study are also discussed.


JEL: J24; O15; L20


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


human resource management, cooperative manager, areas of expertise, experience, management style, education, conjoint analysis, Mindanao

Full Text:



Achua, C.F. and Lussier, R.N., 2013. Effective leadership. 5th ed. International ed. Australia: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Adams, K. and Galanes, G.J., 2009. Communicating in groups: application and skills. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Adrian Jr, J.L. and Green, T.W., 2001. Agricultural cooperative managers and the business environment. Journal of Agribusiness, 19(345-2016-15197), pp.17-33.

Ahsan, A. and Nurmaya, E., 2016. Cooperatives in Indonesia: Recent conditions and challenges.

Al-Rawashdeh, E.T., 2012. The impact of management by walking around (MBWA) on achieving organizational excellence among employees in Arab potash company. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 3(5), pp.523-528.

Ammirato, P., 1996. La Lega: The making of a successful cooperative network. Dartmouth Publishing Group.

Apostolakis, G. and Gert, V.A.N., 2018. Cooperative organizations and members’ role: A new perspective (No. 1804). CIRIEC-Université de Liège.

Arando, S., Gago, M., Kato, T., Jones, D.C. and Freundlich, F., 2010. Assessing Mondragon: stability & managed change in the face of globalization.

Ayarkwa, J., Adinyira, E. and Osei‐Asibey, D., 2012. Industrial training of construction students: perceptions of training organizations in Ghana. Education+ Training.

Baarda, J., 2014. The Circle of Responsibilities for Co-op Boards (No. 2161-2018-7973).

Barany, M.E. 2006. Non-timber forest products in the livelihood and coping strategies of households and communities afflicted by HIV/AIDS. Masters thesis. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.

Basterretxea, I. and Albizu, E., 2011. Management training as a source of perceived competitive advantage: The Mondragon Cooperative Group case. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 32(2), pp.199-222.

Belliveau, M.A., O'Reilly III, C.A. and Wade, J.B., 1996. Social capital at the top: Effects of social similarity and status on CEO compensation. Academy of Management Journal, 39(6), pp.1568-1593.

Bennett, R. and Langford, V., 1980. Managerial effectiveness and management education. Journal of European Industrial Training.

Bennett, R., Eagle, L., Mousley, W. and Ali‐Choudhury, R., 2008. Reassessing the value of work‐experience placements in the context of widening participation in higher education. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 60(2), pp.105-122.

Bhagat, S., Bolton, B. and Subramanian, A., 2011. Manager characteristics and capital structure: Theory and evidence. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 46(6), pp.1581-1627.

Bhuyan, S. and Leistritz, F.L., 2001. An examination of characteristics and determinants of success of cooperatives in the non-agricultural sectors. Journal of Cooperatives, 16(1142-2016-92760), pp.46-62.

Birchall, J. and Ketilson, L.H., 2009. Resilience of the cooperative business model in times of crisis. International Labour Organisation.

Blaker, N.M., Rompa, I., Dessing, I.H., Vriend, A.F., Herschberg, C. and Van Vugt, M., 2013. The height leadership advantage in men and women: Testing evolutionary psychology predictions about the perceptions of tall leaders. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 16(1), pp.17-27.

Block, S.R., 1998. Perfect nonprofit boards: Myths, paradoxes, and paradigms. Simon & Schuster Custom Pub.

Bond, J.K., 2009. Cooperative financial performance and board of director characteristics: A quantitative investigation. Journal of Cooperatives, 22(1142-2016-92762), pp.22-44.

Bonface, A., Malenya, A. and Musiega, D., 2015. Effect of Managerial Expertise on Organizational Performance of Investment Banks in Kenya: A Case Study of Old Mutual Acquisition of Faulu Kenya Micro-Enterprise. International Journal of Business and Management Invention. PP-38-54.

Bontis, N., Wu, S., Huang, C.J. and Liu, C.J., 2005. Exploration for the relationship between innovation, IT and performance. Journal of Intellectual Capital.

Brennan, D., 2014. Does the style of management affect the way staff members carry out their work?. Enquiry.

Bretos, I. and Marcuello, C., 2017. Revisiting globalization challenges and opportunities in the development of cooperatives. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 88(1), pp.47-73.

Brill, J.M., Bishop, M.J. and Walker, A.E., 2006. The competencies and characteristics required of an effective project manager: A web-based Delphi study. Educational technology research and development, 54(2), pp.115-140.

Brooks, R. and Youngson, P.L., 2016. Undergraduate work placements: an analysis of the effects on career progression. Studies in Higher Education, 41(9), pp.1563-1578.

Bryson, J.M., 2018. Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organizations: A guide to strengthening and sustaining organizational achievement. John Wiley & Sons.

Buckingham, M. and Coffman, C., 2014. First, break all the rules: What the world's greatest managers do differently. Simon and Schuster.

Burt, R.S., 2009. Structural holes: The social structure of competition. Harvard university press.

Butlin, G., 1996. Educational attainment: A Key to Autonomy and Authority in the Workplace. Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, Statistics Canada.

Cabrita, M.D.R. and Bontis, N., 2008. Intellectual capital and business performance in the Portuguese banking industry. International Journal of Technology Management, 43(1-3), pp.212-237.

Çetin, M., Karabay, M.E. and Efe, M.N., 2012. The effects of leadership styles and the communication competency of bank managers on the employee's job satisfaction: the case of Turkish banks. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, pp.227-235.

Chaghooshi, A., Arab, A. and Dehshiri, S., 2016. A fuzzy hybrid approach for project manager selection. Decision Science Letters, 5(3), pp.447-460.

Collins, H. and Sanders, G., 2007. They give you the keys and say ‘drive it!’ Managers, referred expertise, and other expertises. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A, 38(4), pp.621-641.

Cornforth, C., 2004. The governance of cooperatives and mutual associations: A paradox perspective. Annals of public and cooperative economics, 75(1), pp.11-32.

Cornforth, C., Thomas, A., Spear, R. and Lewis, J., 1988. Developing successful worker co-operatives. SAGE publications Ltd.

Darrell, V., Baccarini, D. and Love, P.E., 2010. Demystifying the folklore of the accidental project manager in the public sector. Project Management Journal, 41(5), pp.56-63.

Davidson, P., Tsakissiris, J. and Guo, Y., 2017. A systems model comparing Australian and Chinese HRM education. Journal of Learning Design, 10(1), pp.31-40.

Davis, J.H., Schoorman, F.D. and Donaldson, L., 1997. Toward a stewardship theory of management. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), pp.20-47.

De Hoogh, A.H., Greer, L.L. and Den Hartog, D.N., 2015. Diabolical dictators or capable commanders? An investigation of the differential effects of autocratic leadership on team performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(5), pp.687-701.

Dejene, E. and Regasa, D.G., 2015. Factors affecting success of agricultural marketing cooperatives. International Journal of Cooperative Studies, 4(1), pp.9-17.

Deller, S., Hoyt, A., Hueth, B. and Sundaram-Stukel, R., 2009. Research on the economic impact of cooperatives. University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives, 231, pp.232-3.

Dogarawa, A.B., 2010. The role of cooperative societies in economic development. Available at SSRN 1622149.

Domencich, T.A. and McFadden, D., 1975. Urban travel demand-a behavioral analysis (No. Monograph).

Dragoni, L., Tesluk, P.E., Russell, J.E. and Oh, I.S., 2009. Understanding managerial development: Integrating developmental assignments, learning orientation, and access to developmental opportunities in predicting managerial competencies. Academy of Management Journal, 52(4), pp.731-743.

Drucker, P., 2012. The practice of management. Routledge.

Durrah, O., Eltigani, M. and Bilal, Z., 2018. Practicing management by walking around and its impact on the service quality. Int. J. Commer. Manag. Res, 4, pp.45-55.

Etikan, I., Musa, S.A. and Alkassim, R.S., 2016. Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American journal of theoretical and applied statistics, 5(1), pp.1-4.

Gennaioli, N., La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F. and Shleifer, A., 2013. Human capital and regional development. The Quarterly journal of economics, 128(1), pp.105-164.

Gibbons, R. and Kaplan, R.S., 2015. Formal measures in informal management: can a balanced scorecard change a culture?. American Economic Review, 105(5), pp.447-51.

Gopalan, R., Milbourn, T. and Song, F., 2010. Strategic flexibility and the optimality of pay for sector performance. The Review of Financial Studies, 23(5), pp.2060-2098.

Gottesman, A.A. and Morey, M.R., 2006. Does a better education make for better managers? An empirical examination of CEO educational quality and firm performance. An Empirical Examination of CEO Educational Quality and Firm Performance (April 21, 2006).

Graf, T., 2017. DBA degree and the MBA: Differences. Retrieved from

Graham, J. and Harvey, C., 2002. How do CFOs make capital budgeting and capital structure decisions?. Journal of applied corporate finance, 15(1), pp.8-23.

Harvell, K.D., 2009. A new study of work ethic as determined by occupation, education, age, gender, and work experience (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia).

Hobart, B. and Sendek, H., 2014. Gen Y now: Millennials and the evolution of leadership. John Wiley & Sons.

Holcomb, T.R., Holmes Jr, R.M. and Connelly, B.L., 2009. Making the most of what you have: Managerial ability as a source of resource value creation. Strategic management journal, 30(5), pp.457-485.

Huang, S., 2014. Managerial expertise, corporate decisions and firm value: Evidence from corporate refocusing. Journal of Financial Intermediation, 23(3), pp.348-375.

Huson, M.R., Malatesta, P.H. and Parrino, R., 2004. Managerial succession and firm performance. Journal of Financial Economics, 74(2), pp.237-275.

Jalbert, T., Jalbert, M. and Perrina, G., 2004. Does degree matter? An empirical analysis of CEO educational paths. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 5(1), pp.65-73.

Joskow, P., Rose, N., Shepard, A., Meyer, J.R. and Peltzman, S., 1993. Regulatory constraints on CEO compensation. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. Microeconomics, 1993(1), pp.1-72.

Kagan, S. and Kagan, S., 1994. Cooperative learning (Vol. 2). San Juan Capistrano, CA: Kagan Cooperative Learning.

Kamath, R. and Meier, H.H., 2006. d Positions in Finance in the United States: An Examination of the 1994-2003 Developments. Journal of Applied Finance, 16(1), pp. 115-124.

Katz, R.L., 2009. Skills of an effective administrator. Harvard Business Review Press.

Kelly, S. and MacDonald, P., 2019. A look at leadership styles and workplace solidarity communication. International Journal of Business Communication, 56(3), pp.432-448.

Khan, M., Khan, I., Qureshi, Q., Khan, R., Jan, F. and Khan, A., 2015. Diversity in the leadership style: A global view. Journal of Information and Knowledge Management, 5(1), pp.48-52.

Kothari, C.R., 2004. Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Age International.

Kotler, P., 2003. Marketing insights from A to Z: 80 concepts every manager needs to know. John Wiley & Sons.

Kotur, B. R., and Anbazhagan, S., 2014. Education and work-experience-influence on the performance. Journal of Business and Management, 16(5), pp. 104-110.

Lubomska-Kalisz, J., 2014. An analysis of the impact of the top management’s qualifications and competence on the competitive position of Polish enterprises. Journal of International Studies, 7(2), pp.116-127.

Mabbun, P. and Leuterio, M., 1973. Cooperative Principles, Programs and Problems. Manila: Alemar-Phoenix Publishing House Incorporated.

Meek, C.B. and Woodworth, W.P., 1990. Technical training and Enterprise: Mondragon's educational system and its implications for other cooperatives. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 11(4), pp.505-528.

Morrison, R.S., Jones, L. and Fuller, B., 1997. The relation between leadership style and empowerment on job satisfaction of nurses. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 27(5), pp.27-34.

Mucuk, İ., 2008. Modern Business Administration, 16. Edition. İstanbul: Türkmen Publishing.

Narayanan, V. K., 2001. Managing technology and innovation for competitive advantage. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Ng, C. and Ng, E., 2009. ‘Balancing the democracy dilemmas: Experiences of three women workers’ cooperatives in Hong Kong’, Economic and Industrial Democracy, 30, pp. 182–206.

Ngai, E. W. T., 2005. Customer relationship management research (1992-2002) an academic literature review and Classification, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 23(6), pp. 582-605.

Nkosi, E., 2013. Skills required for the management of Black-owned small enterprises in Soweto. Acta Commercii, 13(1), pp. 1-10.

Orme, B. and Huber, J., 2000. Improving the value of conjoint simulations. Marketing Research, 12(4), p.12.

Osterberg, P., and Nilsson, J., 2009. Members' perception of their participation in the governance of cooperatives: the key to trust and commitment in agricultural cooperatives. Agribusiness: An International Journal, 25(2), pp. 181-197.

Othman, A., Kari, F., Jani, R., and Hamdan, R., 2012. ‘Factors Influencing Cooperative Membership and Share Increment: An Application of the Logistic Regression Analysis in the Malaysian Cooperatives,’ World Review of Business Research, 2(5), pp. 24-35.

Palia, D., 2000. The impact of regulation on CEO labor markets. The Rand Journal of Economics, pp.165-179.

Papulová, Z. and Mokroš, M., 2007. Importance of managerial skills and knowledge in management for small entrepreneurs. E-leader, Prague, pp.1-8.

Queiro, F., 2016. The effect of manager education on firm growth. QJ Econ, 118(4), pp. 1169-1208.

Quintana, V.U., 1996. Agricultural Cooperatives. Tokyo: Asian Productivity Organization.

Rengifurwarin, Z.A., Akib, H. and Salam, R., 2018. Snapshot of public service quality in the center for integrated business service (CIBS), cooperative micro small and medium enterprises (CMSME), Maluku Province, Indonesia. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 21(3), pp. 1-12.

Rok, B., 2009. Ethical context of the participative leadership model: taking people into account. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 9(4), pp. 461-472.

Saleem, H., 2015. The impact of leadership styles on job satisfaction and mediating role of perceived organizational politics. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 172(27), pp.563-569.

Sawati, M.J., Anwar, S. and Majoka, M.I., 2013. Do Qualification, Experience and Age Matter for Principals Leadership Styles?. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(7), p.403.

Schneider, S.L., Briceno-Rosas, R., Ortmanns, V. and Herzing, J.M., 2018. Measuring migrants’ educational attainment: The CAMCES tool in the IAB-SOEP migration sample. Surveying the Migrant Population: Consideration of Linguistic and Cultural Issues, pp.43-74.

Shockley-Zalabak, P. S., 2014. Fundamentals of organizational communication. 8th Ed. Essex, England: Pearson Education.

Shra'ah, A.E.A., Rumman, M.A., Hamour, H.M.A. and Sha, I.M.A., 2013. Practicing Management by Walking Around and Its Impact on the Organizational Commitment in the Jordanian Hospitals. Journal of Management Research, 5(1), p.64.

Souisa, W., Musa, C.I., Akib, H. and Bado, B., 2019. Determinants of the Performance of Cooperative Manager in Ambon City, Indonesia. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education.

Spear, S.J., 2004. Learning to lead at Toyota. Harvard Business Review, 82(5), pp.78-91.

Taras, V., Kirkman, B.L. and Steel, P., 2010. Examining the impact of culture's consequences: A three-decade, multilevel, meta-analytic review of Hofstede's cultural value dimensions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(3), p.405.

Taylor, H. and Woelfer, J.P., 2012. Critical behavioral competencies for IT project managers: What are they? How are they learned?. In Project Management Techniques and Innovations in Information Technology (pp. 165-184). IGI Global.

Trompenaars, F. and Hampden-Turner, C., 2011. Riding the waves of culture: Understanding diversity in global business. Nicholas Brealey International.

Van Vugt, M., 2006. Evolutionary origins of leadership and followership. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(4), pp.354-371.

Verhees, F.J., Sergaki, P. and Van Dijk, G., 2015. Building up active membership in cooperatives. New Medit, 14(1), pp.42-52.

Wadsworth, J. and Business, U., 2001. Keep the co-op candle burning. Rural Cooperatives, 68(2), pp.19-20.

Webb, T. and Cheney, G., 2014. Worker-owned-and-governed co-operatives and the wider co-operative movement: challenges and opportunities within and beyond the global economic crisis. In The Routledge companion to alternative organization (pp. 88-112). Routledge.

Weisbach, M.S., 1995. CEO turnover and the firm's investment decisions. Journal of Financial Economics, 37(2), pp.159-188.

Westcott, R., 2014. Leadership challenges. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 37(1), p.8.

White, E., 2005. Future CEOs may need to have broad liberal-arts foundation. Wall Street Journal B, 4.

Whyte, W.F. and Whyte, K.K., 2014. Making Mondragon: The growth and dynamics of the worker cooperative complex. Cornell university press.

Williams, R.C., 2016. The cooperative movement: Globalization from below. Routledge.

Winter, R., 2009. Academic manager or managed academic? Academic identity schisms in higher education. Journal of higher education policy and management, 31(2), pp.121-131.

Wright, M. 2009. Gower handbook of internal communication. 2nd Ed. Farnhan, England: Gower.

Zeglat, D. and Zigan, K., 2013. Intellectual capital and its impact on business performance: Evidences from the Jordanian hotel industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 13(2), pp.83-100.

Zulch, B., 2014. Leadership communication in project management. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 119, pp.172-181.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 European Journal of Human Resource Management Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2017-2023. European Journal Of Human Resource Management Studies (ISSN 2601-1972) is a registered trademark. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


Hit counter