Jane A. Hubay, Kymwell R. Hinlayagan


This study was conducted to address the issue of disengaged employees in the context of restaurants by determining the underlying factors for its incidence as employee outcomes. This study utilized the exploratory mixed-method approach following a two-phase study design. The first phase consisted of in-depth interviews with six restaurant employees, selected purposively in order to develop a significant statement for the development of factor structure on employee outcomes which will be used in the second phase. The second phase was the development of survey instruments for 420 respondents, selected randomly. In the first phase, exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the salient factors which yielded five dimensions. The five dimensions that characterized employee outcomes, after 12 iterations are an empowered workforce, customer focus, efficient performance, a trusted and confident workforce, and continuing professional development. These dimensions were validated through a quantitative phase utilizing the confirmatory factor analysis in order to identify the best-fit model. Four model configurations were undertaken and model 4 was considered the most parsimonious model, essentials statistical analysis revealed that all of the identified factors were significantly correlated. The model explains 69.6 percent of the variation in employee outcomes.


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management, employee outcomes, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, restaurants, Philippines

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejhrms.v6i2.1470


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