A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REMOTE INTERVIEWS AND HIRING FOR NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

Barbara A. Manko

Abstract


In increasingly globalized societies, heavily dependent on online communication, it is crucial to provide children with exposure to various languages, cultural influences, and ideas linking people from all around the world. The choice to hire an au pair from outside the US not only allows families to broaden their intercultural horizons, but also provides unique opportunities for talented, specially trained childcare providers eager to experience life in America. Most families do not have the means to travel with their children internationally but can bring an authentic experience from another part of the world into their homes. People rely on online tools to ensure they have found the very best family-caregiver match. This study explores 123 host families’ experiences of interviewing and selecting au pairs, based on survey responses about the technological tools they used for interviewing and their recommended selection modalities.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


au pair, intercultural interaction, globalization, communication technology, virtual candidate screening

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abildgaard, M. S. (2018). My whole life in telephones: Material artifacts as interview elicitation devices. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406918797795

Alshaer, A., O’Hare, D., Archambault, P., Shirley, M., & Regenbrecht, H. (2019). How to observe users’ movements in virtual environments: Viewpoint control in a power wheelchair simulator. Human Factors. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720819853682

Anderson, N. J. (2017). Thinking globally, interviewing locally: Using an intensive interview project to teach globalization and social change. Teaching Sociology, 45(4), 388–398. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092055X17718252

Aritz, J., Walker, R., & Cardon, P. W. (2018). Media use in virtual teams of varying levels of coordination. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 81(2), 222–243. https://doi.org/10.1177/2329490617723114

Armstrong, D. (2019). The social life of data points: Antecedents of digital technologies. Social Studies of Science, 49(1), 102–117. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306312718821726

Barboza, G. (2019) Social collateral, dynamic incentives, and joint liability in a two‐step trust game: Lending to the unbankable. Economic Notes, 48(2). https://doi.org/10.1111/ecno.12132

Barboza, G., & Trejos, S. (2010). Economic growth creation or diversion? The record of trade agreements in Latin America. Journal of Business Strategies, 27(1), 93-122.

Barlott, T., Shevellar, L., Turpin, M., & Setchell, J. (2019). The dissident interview: A deterritorializing guerrilla encounter. Qualitative Inquiry. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800419859041

Berkelaar, B. L. (2017). Different ways new information technologies influence conventional organizational practices and employment relationships: The case of cybervetting for personnel selection. Human Relations, 70(9), 1115–1140. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726716686400

Besley, J. C., Dudo, A. D., Yuan, S., & Abi Ghannam, N. (2016). Qualitative interviews with science communication trainers about communication objectives and goals. Science Communication, 38(3), 356–381. https://doi.org/10.1177/1075547016645640.

Bevan, A. (2018). 3-D printed sets and props: How designers integrate digital technologies. Convergence, 24(6), 554–567. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856518789345

Blakeman, R., & Taylor, M. (2017). Technology in the idea generation process: Voices from the agency. Journal of Advertising Education, 21(1), 6–12. https://doi.org/10.1177/109804821702100104

Block, E. S., & Erskine, L. (2012). Interviewing by telephone: Specific considerations, opportunities, and challenges. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 428–445. https://doi.org/10.1177/160940691201100409

Budiningsih, I., Tjiptogoro D., and Zul A (2017). Improvement of employees’ performance through training intervention in digital era. European Research Studies, 20(4), 637-654.

Burchinal, M., Magnuson, K., Powell, D., & Hong, S. S. (2015). Early childcare and education. In M. H. Bornstein, T. Leventhal, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Ecological settings and processes (p. 223–267). John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Búriková, Z., & Miller, D. (2013) Au Pair. Českou asociací pro sociální Antropologii (CASA).

Burns, E. (2010). Developing email interview practices in qualitative research. Sociological Research Online, 15(4), 24–35. https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.2232

Bury, R. (2017). Technology, fandom and community in the second media age. Convergence, 23(6), 627–642. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856516648084

Bush, S. S., & Prather, L. (2019). Do electronic devices in face-to-face interviews change survey behavior? Evidence from a developing country. Research & Politics, 6(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/2053168019844645

Carter, D. (2019). New technologies and new data sources: The business information survey 2019. Business Information Review, 36(3), 95–105. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266382119871848

Chen, P., & Hinton, S. M. (1999). Realtime interviewing using the World Wide Web. Sociological Research Online, 4(3), 63–81. https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.308

Cole, S. J. (2018). Use value as a cultural strategy against over-commodification: A Durkheimian analysis of craft consumption within virtual communities. Sociology, 52(5), 1052–1068. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038517726646

Couper, M. P., Berglund, P., Kirgis, N., & Buageila, S. (2016). Using text-to-speech (TTS) for audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI). Field Methods, 28(2), 95–111. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X14562350

Darics, E., & Gatti, M. C. (2019). Talking a team into being in online workplace collaborations: The discourse of virtual work. Discourse Studies, 21(3), 237–257. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445619829240

de Graaf, M. M., Ben Allouch, S., & van Dijk, J. A. (2018). A phased framework for long-term user acceptance of interactive technology in domestic environments. New Media & Society, 20(7), 2582–2603. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444817727264

Eimhjellen, I. S. (2014). Web technologies in practice: The integration of web technologies by environmental organizations. Media, Culture & Society, 36(6), 845–861. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443714536075

Esmaeili, L., & Golpayegani, A. H. (2020). Conformance checking of the activity network with the social relationships structure in the context of social commerce. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 15(2), 93-121. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-18762020000200107

Farr, M. (2004). The very quick job search: Get a better job in half the time! (3rd ed.). Jist Publishing.

Fonseca, D., Navarro, I., de Renteria, I., Moreira, F., Ferrer, Á., & de Reina, O. (2018). Assessment of wearable virtual reality technology for visiting world heritage buildings: An educational approach. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 56(6), 940–973. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633117733995

Gao, L., Bai, X., & Park, A. (Tony). (2017). Understanding sustained participation in virtual travel communities from the perspectives of is success model and flow theory. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 41(4), 475–509. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348014563397

Garay, L., & Morales, S. (2020). Decomposing and relating user engagement in festivals’ virtual brand communities: An analysis of Sónar’s Twitter and Facebook. Tourist Studies, 20(1), 96–119. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468797619873109

Geserick, C. (2012). ‘I always wanted to go abroad. and I like children’: Motivations of young people to become au pairs in the USA. YOUNG, 20(1), 49–67. https://doi.org/10.1177/110330881102000103

González-Anta, B., Orengo, V., Zornoza, A., Peñarroja, V., & Martínez-Tur, V. (2019). Understanding the sense of community and continuance intention in virtual communities: the role of commitment and type of community. Social Science Computer Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439319859590

Greenfield, P. M., Flores, A., Davis H., & Salimkhan, G. (2008). What happens when parents and nannies comes from different cultures? Comparing the caregiving belief systems of nannies and their employers. Journal and Applied Developmental Psychology, 29 (4), 326-336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.04.002

Gustafsson Jertfelt, I. H., Blanchin, A., & Li, S. (2016). Cultural perspective in open-ended interviews – The importance of being adaptable. Culture & Psychology, 22(4), 483–501. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354067X16650809

Hale, J., Payne, M. E., Taylor, K. M., Paoletti, D., & De C Hamilton, A. F. (2018). The virtual maze: A behavioural tool for measuring trust. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71(4), 989–1008. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2017.1307865

Han, S. J., & Beyerlein, M. (2016). Framing the effects of multinational cultural diversity on virtual team processes. Small Group Research, 47(4), 351–383. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496416653480

Hando, S. H. (2017, March). Cultural Care au pair childcare business grows in Northeastern Pennsylvania. The Times Leader.

Hanna, P. (2012). Using internet technologies (such as Skype) as a research medium: A research note. Qualitative Research, 12(2), 239–242. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794111426607

Hardey, M. (2020). Gender and technology culture: Points of contact in tech cities. Sociological Research Online, 25(1), 101–118. https://doi.org/10.1177/1360780419851137

Hardey, M., & Atkinson, R. (2018). Disconnected: Non-users of information communication technologies. Sociological Research Online, 23(3), 553–571. https://doi.org/10.1177/1360780418764736

Hart, R. K. (2016). Informal virtual mentoring for team leaders and members: Emergence, content, and impact. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 18(3), 352–368. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422316645886

Hennink, M. M., Kaiser, B. N., & Marconi, V. C. (2017). Code saturation versus meaning saturation: How many interviews are enough? Qualitative Health Research, 27(4), 591–608. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732316665344

Ho, T.-K., & Lin, Y.-T. (2016). The effects of virtual communities on group identity in classroom management. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 54(1), 3–21. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633115611645

Hwang, W.-Y., Manabe, K., Cai, D.-J., & Ma, Z.-H. (2019). Collaborative kinesthetic English learning with recognition technology. Journal of Educational Computing Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633119893117

Ibrahim, A., Ali, H., Zghoul, A., & Jaradat, S. (2019). Mood state and human evaluation of the thermal environment using virtual settings. Indoor and Built Environment. https://doi.org/10.1177/1420326X19880325

Irvine, A., Drew, P., & Sainsbury, R. (2013). ‘Am I not answering your questions properly?’ Clarification, adequacy and responsiveness in semi-structured telephone and face-to-face interviews. Qualitative Research, 13(1), 87–106. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794112439086

Iverson, J., & Karypis, G. (2018). A virtual memory manager optimized for node-level cooperative multi-tasking in memory constrained systems. The International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, 32(5), 744–759. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094342017690975

Jablonski, W. (2014). Landline versus cell phone surveys – Interviewers’ experience. Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique, 123(1), 5–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0759106314531884

Johnson, D. R., Scheitle, C. P., & Ecklund, E. H. (2019). Beyond the in-person interview? How interview quality varies across in-person, telephone, and Skype interviews.” Social Science Computer Review, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439319893612

Jørgensen, L., & Holt, R. (2019). Organization, atmosphere, and digital technologies: Designing sensory order. Organization, 26(5), 673–695. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508419855698

Kang, Y., & Ritzhaupt, A. D. (2015). A job announcement analysis of educational technology professional positions: Knowledge, skills, and abilities. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 43(3), 231–256. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047239515570572

Kannon, J., & Gedarovich, R. (2009, January). Au Pair in America expands to 10 new markets. Business Wire.

Kaufmann, K. (2018). The smartphone as a snapshot of its use: Mobile media elicitation in qualitative interviews. Mobile Media & Communication, 6(2), 233–246. https://doi.org/10.1177/2050157917743782

Kaufmann, K., & Peil, C. (2019). The mobile instant messaging interview (MIMI): Using WhatsApp to enhance self-reporting and explore media usage in situ. Mobile Media & Communication. https://doi.org/10.1177/2050157919852392

Kim, M. J., Lee, C.-K., & Jung, T. (2020). Exploring consumer behavior in virtual reality tourism using an extended stimulus-organism-response model. Journal of Travel Research, 59(1), 69–89. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287518818915

Kopplin, Z. (2017, March). ’They think we are slaves’: The U.S. au pair program in riddled with problems – and new documents show that the State Department might know more than it’s letting on. Politico.

Krishnan, S. (2018). Book Review [Review of the book Virtual teams that work: Creating conditions for virtual team effectiveness by C. B. Gibson and S. G. Cohen]. Vision, 22(4), 445–446. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972262918804083

Kristensen, D. B., & Ruckenstein, M. (2018). Co-evolving with self-tracking technologies. New Media & Society, 20(10), 3624–3640. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444818755650

Laufer, M. (2019). Spinning stories: Communicating internationalization through organizational storytelling. Journal of Studies in International Education. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315319893652

Lee, H., Kim, S., Couper, M. P., & Woo, Y. (2019). Experimental comparison of PC web, smartphone web, and telephone surveys in the new technology era. Social Science Computer Review, 37(2), 234–247. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439318756867

Lee, L. Y.-S. (2016). Hospitality industry web-based self-service technology adoption model: A cross-cultural perspective. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 40(2), 162–197. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348013495695

Lee, S. K., & Flores, M. L. (2019). Immigrant workers’ organizational temporality: Association with cultural time orientation, acculturation, and mobile technology use. Management Communication Quarterly, 33(2), 189–218. https://doi.org/10.1177/0893318918821727

Lenkaitis, C. A., & Loranc-Paszylk, B. (2019). Facilitating global citizenship development in lingua franca virtual exchanges. Language Teaching Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168819877371

Liao, T. (2018). Mobile versus headworn augmented reality: How visions of the future shape, contest, and stabilize an emerging technology. New Media & Society, 20(2), 796–814. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444816672019

Liedtka, J. (2020). Putting technology in its place: Design thinking’s social technology at work. California Management Review, 62(2), 53-83. https://doi.org/10.1177/0008125619897391

Linabary, J.R., Hamel, S.A (2017). Feminist online interviewing: Engaging issues of power, resistance and reflexivity in practice. Feminist Review, 115(1), 97–113. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41305-017-0041-3

Lo Iacono, V., Symonds, P., & Brown, D. H. K. (2016). Skype as a tool for qualitative research interviews. Sociological Research Online, 21(2), pp. 103-117. https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.3952

Lockwood, J., & Forey, G. (2016). Discursive control and power in virtual meetings. Discourse & Communication, 10(4), 323–340. https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481316638152

Mackiewicz, A. (2019). [Review of the book Skype: Bodies, screens, space by R. Longhurst]. Feminism & Psychology, 29(3), 433–437. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959353518796867

Madrid, M. (2018, August). The big business of exploiting au pairs: A State Department program that oversees the nation’s au pair programs isn’t doing much overseeing at all.” The American Prospect.

Magaudda, P. (2014). The broken boundaries between science and technology studies and cultural sociology: Introduction to an interview with Trevor Pinch. Cultural Sociology, 8(1), 63–76. https://doi.org/10.1177/1749975513484604

Maienschein, J., Parker, J. N., Laubichler, M., & Hackett, E. J. (2019). Data management and data sharing in science and technology studies. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 44(1), 143–160. https://doi.org/10.1177/0162243918798906

Mann, M. J., Yanson, R., & Lambert, A. D. (2018). Using service learning to improve interviewer and interviewee effectiveness. Management Teaching Review, 3(1), 20–36. https://doi.org/10.1177/2379298117697698

Massa, F. G. (2017). Guardians of the internet: Building and sustaining the anonymous online community. Organization Studies, 38(7), 959–988. https://doi.org/10.1177/0170840616670436

Mattila, M., & Lehtimaki, H. (2016). Networks in technology commercialization. South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases, 5(1), 43–54. https://doi.org/10.1177/2277977916634235

McCoyd, J. L. M. and Kerson, T. S., (2006). Conducting intensive interviews using email: A serendipitous comparative opportunity. Qualitative Social Work, 5(3), 389–406. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473325006067367

Miltiadis, C. (2016). Project anywhere: An interface for virtual architecture. International Journal of Architectural Computing, 14(4), 386–397. https://doi.org/10.1177/1478077116670746

Mittereder, F., Durow, J., West, B. T., Kreuter, F., & Conrad, F. G. (2018). Interviewer–respondent interactions in conversational and standardized interviewing. Field Methods, 30(1), 3–21. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X17729341

Mneimneh, Z. N., Elliott, M. R., Tourangeau, R., & Heeringa, S. G. (2018). Cultural and interviewer effects on interview privacy: Individualism and national wealth. Cross-Cultural Research, 52(5), 496–523. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069397118759014

Molek-Kozakowska, K. (2020) Graphic emotion: A critical rhetorical analysis of online children-related charity communication in Poland, Critical Discourse Studies, 17(1), 72-90, https://doi.org/10.1080/17405904.2019.1567362

Mukherjee, D., & Natrajan, N. S. (2017). Comparative analysis of social media tool used in software projects deploying virtual teams. Vision, 21(4), 397–409. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972262917733180

Newman, S. A., Ford, R. C., & Marshall, G. W. (2019). Virtual team leader communication: Employee perception and organizational reality. International Journal of Business Communication. https://doi.org/10.1177/2329488419829895

O’Connor, E. A. (2018). Developing community and building knowledge online using a virtual reality environment and student-created videos. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 46(3), 343–362. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047239517736874

O’Connor, E. A., & Domingo, J. (2017). A practical guide, with theoretical underpinnings, for creating effective virtual reality learning environments. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 45(3), 343–364. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047239516673361

Olsson, M. (2017). Direct and cross effects of employment protection: The case of parental childcare. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 119(4), 1105–1128. https://doi.org/10.1111/sjoe.12193

Peñarroja, V., González-Anta, B., Orengo, V., Zornoza, A., & Gamero, N. (2020). Reducing relationship conflict in virtual teams with diversity faultlines: The effect of an online affect management intervention on the rate of growth of team resilience. Social Science Computer Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439320907575

Perera, K. (2019). The interview as an opportunity for participant reflexivity. Qualitative Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794119830539

Pop Silaghi M.I., Alexa D., Jude C., Litan C. (2014). Do business and public sector research and development expenditures contribute to economic growth in Central and Eastern European countries? A dynamic panel estimation. Economic Modelling, 36, 108-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2013.08.035

Power, K. (2019). Ethical problems in virtual research: Enmeshing the blurriness with Twitter data. E-Learning and Digital Media, 16(3), 196–207. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042753019834954

Powers, M., & Vera-Zambrano, S. (2018). How journalists use social media in France and the United States: Analyzing technology use across journalistic fields. New Media & Society, 20(8), 2728–2744. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444817731566

Purvanova, R. K., & Kenda, R. (2018). Paradoxical virtual leadership: Reconsidering virtuality through a paradox lens. Group & Organization Management, 43(5), 752–786. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601118794102

Raun, T. (2015). Video blogging as a vehicle of transformation: Exploring the intersection between trans identity and information technology. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 18(3), 365–378. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367877913513696

Read, B. L. (2018). Serial interviews: When and why to talk to someone more than once. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 17(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406918783452

Renuga, M., & Ezhilan, S. (2016). Language teachers of technology education: Challenges, needs and transformations. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 51(4), 480–493. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021909614547603

Roberts, D. (2017). Subcultural boundary maintenance in a virtual community for body modification enthusiasts. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 20(4), 361–376. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367877916628240

Røkkum, N. H. A., & Kojan, B. H. (2019). Exploring normative complexity: (How) does the life history interview work in child welfare research? Qualitative Social Work. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473325019869818

Saker, M., & Frith, J. (2019). From hybrid space to dislocated space: Mobile virtual reality and a third stage of mobile media theory. New Media & Society, 21(1), 214–228. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444818792407

Schouten, A. P., van den Hooff, B., & Feldberg, F. (2016). Virtual team work: Group decision making in 3D virtual environments. Communication Research, 43(2), 180–210. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650213509667

Sedgwick, M., & Spiers, J. (2009). The use of videoconferencing as a medium for the qualitative interview. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/160940690900800101

Seitz, S. (2016). Pixilated partnerships, overcoming obstacles in qualitative interviews via Skype: A research note. Qualitative Research, 16(2), 229–235. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1177/0008125619897391

Sheffield, J. P. (2020). Search engine optimization and business communication instruction: Interviews with experts. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1177/2329490619890335

Silverman, D. (2017). How was it for you? The Interview Society and the irresistible rise of the (poorly analyzed) interview. Qualitative Research, 17(2), 144–158. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794116668231

Sobré-Denton, M. (2016). Virtual intercultural bridgework: Social media, virtual cosmopolitanism, and activist community-building. New Media & Society, 18(8), 1715–1731. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444814567988

Spowart, L., & Nairn, K. (2014). (Re)performing emotions in diary-interviews. Qualitative Research, 14(3), 327–340. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794112473498

Štefaniková, S., & Láb, F. (2018). Transformation of photojournalism practice in the Czech Republic in the age of digital technology. Journalism, 19(2), 234–251. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884916663622

Tammpuu, P., & Masso, A. (2018). ‘Welcome to the virtual state’: Estonian e-residency and the digitalised state as a commodity. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 21(5), 543–560. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367549417751148

Teachman, G., & Gibson, B. E. (2018). Integrating visual methods with dialogical interviews in research with youth who use augmentative and alternative communication. International Journal of Qualitative Methods. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406917750945

Tredinnick, L. (2019). Twenty-nine years of the BIR Annual Survey part 1: Technological change. Business Information Review, 36(3), 106–124. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266382119871840

Trevisan, D. F., Becerra, L., Benitez, P., Higbee, T. S., & Gois, J. P. (2019). A review of the use of computational technology in applied behavior analysis. Adaptive Behavior, 27(3), 183–196. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059712319839386

Ustek-Spilda, F., Powell, A., & Nemorin, S. (2019). Engaging with ethics in Internet of Things: Imaginaries in the social milieu of technology developers. Big Data & Society, 6(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/2053951719879468

Vuopala, E., Hyvönen, P., & Järvelä, S. (2016). Interaction forms in successful collaborative learning in virtual learning environments. Active Learning in Higher Education, 17(1), 25–38. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787415616730

Willett, R. (2017). ‘Friending someone means just adding them to your friends list, not much else’: Children’s casual practices in virtual world games. Convergence, 23(3), 325–340. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856515599513

Williams, L. D. A. (2017). Getting undone technology done: Global techno-assemblage and the value chain of invention. Science, Technology and Society, 22(1), 38–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0971721816682799

Wiltshier, P., & Clarke, A. (2017). Virtual cultural tourism: Six pillars of VCT using co-creation, value exchange and exchange value. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 17(4), 372–383. https://doi.org/10.1177/1467358415627301

Yang, A., & Liu, W. (2018). CSR communication and environmental issue networks in virtual space: A cross-national study. Business & Society. https://doi.org/10.1177/0007650318763565

Yodanis, C., & Lauer, S. (2005). Foreign visitor, exchange student, or family member? A study of au pair policies in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 25(9), 41-64. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443330510791171

Zhu, Y., & Smith, S. A. (2019). Information and communication technology support for contextualization, polychronic values, and job satisfaction: Evidence from virtual teams. International Journal of Business Communication.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejhrms.v4i4.926

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Human Resource Management Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal Of Human Resource Management Studies (ISSN 2601-1972) is a registered trademark. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


 

Hit counter