Jason M. Fuentes, Exequiel R. Gono


This paper aims to identify the factors that characterize students’ attitudes toward learning social studies. This study employed a quantitative, non-experimental research design utilizing the exploratory factor analysis technique involving 365 junior high school students in secondary school. A researcher-made instrument developed from an in-depth interview with 12 high school students, from a literature review, and related studies have been utilized. To validate the questionnaire, the researcher employs the Content Validity Ratio (CVR) method where ten (10) experts were selected to review the self-made questionnaire. Item statements that pass the threshold of 0.80 were selected as part of the survey questionnaire while those item statements which failed to reach the 0.80 thresholds were eliminated. Utilizing the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), a total of 40 item statements qualified within the threshold of >0.40 after 16 rotations and iterations thus, making them the factors characterizing students’ attitudes toward learning social studies. These measures are the attitude of students in learning different areas under social studies, cognitive attitude, future academic and career planning, positive behavioral attitude, personal attitude, affective attitude, negative behavioral attitude, practical attitude, reflective attitude, and obtaining a degree in social studies.


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education, attitude in learning social studies, exploratory factor analysis, thematic analysis, Philippines

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejsss.v8i4.1433

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