Kok Hwee Chia, Boon Hock Lim, Ban Meng Lee


In this paper, the authors have chosen to take a closer look at a socio-emotional behavioral condition known as Inappropriate Behavior or Feelings Disorder (IBFD) which is listed in the Educator’s Diagnostic Manual of Disabilities and Disorders (EDM; Pierangelo & Guiliani, 2007). The term (or IBFD for short) used in this diagnostic manual is not found anywhere in the current literature including the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). According to the EDM, under the IDEA 2004 enactment, it is one of the criteria for the classification of Emotional Disturbance (ED): “inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances” (p.163), and it covers social, emotional, physical and psychological aspects of behavior or feelings. Hence, the term Inappropriate Behavior or Feelings Disorder is coined from this particular IDEA statement of criterion and, in turn, it is used only in the EDM multi-level coding system. The authors argued the need for educational therapists, special educators and counselors to reframe their current understanding of the IBFD, whose symptoms are similar to disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), within the context of the cognition-conation-affect-sensation (CCAS) framework as they continue to observe, record and evaluate the condition in terms of its core symptoms seen, measured and/or profiled before the diagnostic term IBFD is applied under the EDM code ED3.00. 


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



affect, aggression, behavior, conation, cognition, sensation


Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Chia, K. H. (2007). Bridging reading and writing: A cognitive equation of literacy. ASCD Review, 13, 5-12.

Chia, K. H. (2011, Fall). What we need to know and understand about courage: Part 1. Unlimited Human! 8-13

Chia, K. H. (2013, June). Managing the challenging behaviors of children with special needs. Plenary paper presented at the St. Andrew’s Center for Early Childhood Education Seminar on Managing Children’s Challenging Behaviors, St. Andrew’s Junior College, Singapore.

Chia, K. H., & Lim, B. H. (2017a, Summer). Effects as a means to socio-emotional behavioral reactions/responses in psychosocial complexes. Unlimited Human! 5-7.

Chia, K. H., & Lim, B. H. (2017b). Understanding overexcitabilities of people with exceptional abilities within the framework of cognition-conation-affect-and-sensation. European Journal of Education Studies, 3(6), 649-672.

Chia, K. H., & Wong, M. E. (2014). Challenging Behavior Impact Factor (CBIF): Validation of an aggressive behavior screening tool on children. International Journal of Case Studies, 3(7), 70-78.

Cooke-Goff, K. (2012, November 22). Schizophrenia/disperception … the disorder with no real clarity. Retrieved [online] from:

Dabrowski, K. (1972). Psychoneurosis is not an illness. London, UK: Gryf.

Dubow, E. F., Huesmann, L. R., & Eron, L. D. (1987). Mitigating aggression and promoting prosocial behavior in aggressive elementary schoolboys. Behavior Research and Therapy, 25(6), 527-531.

Erikson, E.H. (1959). Identity and the life cycle. New York: International Universities Press.

Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: W.W. Norton.

Foxman, P. (2004). The worried child: Recognizing anxiety in children and helping them heal. New Delhi, India: Rupa Publications.

Hull, C. L., Hovland, C. I., Ross, R. T., Hall, M., Perkins, D. T., & Fitch, F. B. (1940). Mathematico-deductive theory of rote learning: A study in scientific methodology. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of behavior: An introduction to behavior. New York, NY: D. Appleton-Century Co., Inc.

Hunt, M. (2007). The story of psychology. New York, NY: Anchor Books.

Hunt, R. D. (1993). Neurobiological patterns of aggression. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, 2(1), 14-19.

Hunt, N., & Marshall, K. (2005). Exceptional children and youth (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Kaiser, B., & Rasminsky, J. S. (2012). Challenging behavior in young children: Understanding, preventing, and responding effectively (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Kegan, R. (1982). The evolving self: Problem and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Loeb, J. (1900). Comparative physiology of the brain and comparative psychology. New York, NY: Putnam.

Long, N. J., & Brendtro, L. K. (Eds.). (1993). Rage and aggression. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, 2(1).

Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construction of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71, 543-562.

Mertz, J. (2013). A mindful difference: Respond vs react. Retrieved [online] from:

Pacer Center (2006). ACTION information sheet: What is an emotional or behavioral disorder? Retrieved [online] from:

Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44(2), 329-335.

Piechowski, M. (1991). Giftedness for all seasons: Inner peace in a time of war. Presented at the Henry B. and Jocelyn Wallace National Research Symposium on Talent Development, University of Iowa, USA.

Piechowski, M. (2006). “Mellow out” they say. If I only could. Intensities and sensitivities of the young and bright. Madison, WI: Yunasa Books.

Pierangelo, R., & Giuliani, G. (2007). The Educator’s Diagnostic Manual of disabilities and disorders. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/John Wiley & Sons.

Poland, R. G. (1974). Human experience: A psychology of growth. Saint Louis, CO: C.V. Mosby.

Rebder, A. S., Allen, R., & Reber, E. S. (2009). Penguin dictionary of psychology. London, UK: Penguin Books.

Scriven, M. (1961). Psychology: An overview of stimulus-response reinforcement theory. Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.

Seligman, M. E. P., Walker, E. F., & Rosenhan, D. L. (2001). Abnormal psychology (4th ed.). New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.

SG Legal Learning Center (2011, May 13). What is a beyond parental control order? Retrieved [online] from:

Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Skinner, B. F. (1967). Utopia through the control of human behavior. The Listener, 77, 55-56.

Skinner, B. F. (1979). The shaping of a behaviorist. New York, NY: Knopf.

Tolman, E. C. (1932). Purposive behavior in man and animals. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

U.S. Department of Education (2004). The 26th annual report to Congress on the implementation of IDEA. Washington, DC: The Author.

Vitaro, F., Barker, E. D., Boivin, M., Brendgen, M., & Tremblay, R. E. (2006). Do early difficult temperament and harsh parenting differentially predict reactive and proactive aggression? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 685-695.

Watson, J. B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 22, 333-353.

Werner, E. E. (2000). Protective factors and individual resilience. In J. P. Shonkoff & S. J. Meisels (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention (2nd ed.) (pp.115-132). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Wood, J. J., Cowan, P. A., & Baker, B. L. (2002). Behavior problems and peer rejection in preschool boys and girls. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 163(1), 72-88.


Copyright (c) 2018 Kok Hwee Chia, Boon Hock Lim, Ban Meng Lee

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2015 - 2018. European Journal Of Social Sciences Studies (ISSN 2501-8590) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


Hit counter