Akio Daysuke Nakasato


Culture-bound disorders, or culture-bound mental disorders, are psychological disorders or syndromes that are considered specific or closely related to cultural factors and or particular ethno cultural groups By definition, the hikikomori (the term can also be used in the plural) is one who retires from the community in order to have a solitary lifestyle. The Japanese term hiki means "to pull" and komoru means "retiring" or "withdrawing," hence the sense of pulling out from the community. The hikikomori is acknowledged a uniquely Japanese phenomenon. The typical hikikomori is a male (80% are male), teenaged to 30 years old, who has resigned from school or job, with poor technical skills. usually, the subjects are unemployed, residing in a separate room in his parents' house, avoiding any contact or coming out, taking meals left at his door by his friends or parents, spending the day reading, browsing, viewing television, idling.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


hikikomori; social isolation; integration; alternative education system


Richard Lloyd Parry's article "This Man Won't Leave His Room. And He's Not Alone" (;

Kondo, N. (1997) Hiseishinbyousei hikikomori no genzai (The present conditions of nonpsychotic pyscho-social withdrawal cases). Rinshou Seishin Igaku (Japanese Journal of Clinical Psychiatry), 26(9), 1159–1167.

Koyama, A., Miyake, Y., Kawakami, N., Tsuchiya, M., Tachimori, H., & Takeshima, T. (2010). Lifetime prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and demographic correlates of “hikikomori” in a community population in Japan. Psychiatry Research, 176, 69-74

Furlong, A. (2008). The Japanese hikikomori phenomenon: Acute social withdrawal among young people. The Sociological Review, 56(2), 309-325.

Phil Rees's article "Japan, the Missing Million" (;

Maggie Jones' article "Shutting Themselves In" (;

Michael Zielenziger's book Shutting Out the Sun: How Japan Created Its Own Lost Generation (New York: Doubleday, 2006) and his essay "Hikikomori and Other Pathologies," presented to RIETI, Japan's Research Institute of Economy, Trade & Industry, 2007. (

History of Japan. (2010). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from Encyclopædia

Britannica Online:

Kaneko, S. (2006). Japan's "socially withdrawn youths" and time constraints in Japanese society. Time & Society, 15(2/3), 233-249.

Kinugasa, T., 1998. Young adults and withdrawing. Rinsho Seishin Igaku, 147-152.

Kobayashi, S., Yoshida, K., Noguchi, H., Tuchiya, T., & Ito, J., 2003. Research for parents of children with “social withdrawal”. Seishin Igaku, 45, 749–756.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Alternative Education Studies (ISSN 2501-5915) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).