Evangelos C. Papakitsos, Konstantinos Karakiozis


Conflicts and confrontations between students are a key-feature of school life. Especially in recent years, both the scientific and the educational community are particularly sensitive to bullying issues in the school context. Peer mediation (or school mediation) is an alternative way to manage conflicts at school. A critical evaluation of this practice is attempted, as well as its contribution to the formation of a positive attitude in school and to the decreasing of school-bullying incidents. For this purpose, school extracurricular programmes can be planned. The application of relevant programmes at school can be facilitated by systemic modelling that may provide a useful conceptual tool for organizing similar interventions. The overall approach is exemplified by the implementation of Health Education programmes, as they are conducted at the Greek secondary education in the context of educational counselling psychology interventions.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


peer mediation, school mediation, conflict management, school bullying, systemic modelling


ASCA, 2015. Position Statement for Safe Schools and Crisis Response. American School Counseling Association. Accessed 16 May 2016.

Association for Conflict Resolution, 2007. Recommended Standards for School-Based Peer Mediation Programs. Education Section. Washington, DC: Association for Conflict Resolution.

Bitel Μ., Rolls D., 2000. Mediation in a South London Secondary School. In M. Liebmann (Ed.), Mediation in Context. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Carneiro D., Novais P., Neves J., 2014. Conflict Resolution and its Context. From the Analysis of Behavioural Patterns to Efficient Decision-Making. Springer International Publishing.

Child’s Advocate, 2013. School Mediation. How does the institution functions nowadays in secondary education schools of Greece. Accessed 16 November 2015 (in Greek).

Cremin H., 2007. Peer Mediation: Citizenship and social inclusion revisited. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Davies L., 2004. Conflict and Education: Complexity and Chaos. London: Routledge Falmer.

European Anti-Bullying Network, 2014. European Guide of anti-bullying Good Practices. EC: Daphne III Programme.

European Constitutional Law Center, 2015. Material for education managers and teachers. Deliverable 1.1, Project: Elaboration of training, educational and information material and training curriculum. Athens: Themistocles and Dimitris Tsatsos Foundation (in Greek).

Fairfax County Public Schools, n.d. Guidelines for Teaching Conflict Resolution Skills. 10 Lessons for Teaching Conflict Resolution Skills. Accessed 16 November 2015.

Farrington D.P., Ttofi M.M., 2009. How to reduce school bullying. Victims & Offenders: An International Journal of Evidence-based Research, Policy, and Practice 4(4): 321–326.

Flecknoe M., 2005. What does anyone know about peer mediation. Improving Schools 8(2): 221–235.

Fountain S., 1999. Peace education in UNICEF. Working Paper, Education Section, Programme Division. New York: UNICEF.

Galanaki E., 2010. Bullying: How effective are interventions? Proceedings of the Greek Institute of Applied Pedagogics and Education (ELL.I.E.P.EK.) at the 5th National Conference on “Learn how to learn”. Athens (in Greek).

Grover V., Kettinger W.J., 2000. Process Think: Winning Perspectives for Business Change in the Information Age. IGI Global. doi: 10.4018/978-1-878289-68-1.

Haynes J.M., Haynes G.L., Fong L.S., 2004. Mediation: Positive conflict management. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Choi Hee-sook, Yul Whitney, Korcuska J.S., Proctor T.B., 2008. Consultation Practices between School Counselors and School Psychologists: Implications for Training and Practice. Journal of Applied School Psychology 24(2): 303-318.

Heylighen F., Joslyn C., 1992. Systems Theory. In F. Heylighen, C. Joslyn & V. Turchin (Eds.), Principia Cybernetica Web. Brussels: Principia Cybernetica. Accessed 10 October 2015.

IREX, FTI (Foundation for Tolerance International), 2013. Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation Toolkit. United States Institute of Peace. Accessed 16 November 2015.

Johnson D.W., Johnson R.T., 1996. Conflict resolution and peer mediation programmes in elementary and secondary schools: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research 66(4): 459-506.

Joynt D., 2004. Counseling and mediation skills: Two sides of the same coin. The Connecticut Counselor 17(3): 2–3.

Kallestad J.H., Olweus D., 2003. Predicting Teachers’ and Schools’ Implementation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: A Multilevel Study. Prevention and Treatment 6(1): 3-21.

Karakiozis K., Papapanousi C., 2015a. The opinion of students about the role of adults in bullying incidents at school. (Hellenic) Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences (IAKE), 1st Pan-Hellenic Conference “The modern school through the glasses of Humanities and Social Sciences: From theory to daily practice”. April 2015, Heraklion, Crete (in Greek).

Karakiozis K., Papapanousi C., 2015b. The Theoretical Approach of Intervention Programmes at Schools for Dealing with School-Bullying Incidents. (Hellenic) Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences (IAKE), 1st Pan-Hellenic Conference “The modern school through the glasses of Humanities and Social Sciences: From theory to daily practice”. April 2015, Heraklion, Crete (in Greek).

Karakiozis K., Papapanousi C., Mavrakis A., Papakitsos E.C., 2015a. Initiating an Olweus-Based Intervention Against School-Bullying. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 1(3): 173-179.

Karakiozis K., Papapanousi C., Papakitsos E., Argyriou A., 2015b. Recording the Opinion of Students about the Attitude of Adults in School -Bullying. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development 4(1): 178-189.

Kourkoutas E., Giovazolias T., 2015. School-Based Counselling Work With Teachers: An Integrative Model. The European Journal of Counselling Psychology 3(2): 137–158.

Lasswell D.H., 1991. The structure and function of communication in society. In K. Livieratos, T. Fragkoulis (Eds.), The message of medium. The explosion of massive communication (pp. 65-83). Athens: Alexandria (in Greek).

Laszlo A., Krippner S., 1998. Systems Theories: Their Origins, Foundations, and Development. In J.S. Jordan (Ed.), Systems Theories and A Priori Aspects of Perception (Ch. 3, pp. 47-74). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Laszlo E., Masulli I., 1993, with Artigiani R. & Csányi V. (Eds.). The evolution of cognitive maps: New paradigms for the twenty-first century. New York: Gordon & Breach.

Liebmann M., 2000. Mediation in Context. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Limber S.P., 2011. Development, evaluation, and future directions of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program. Journal of School Violence 10: 71-87.

Luhmann N., 1995. Social Systems. Stanford, CA: Stanford U.P.

Mantoglou A., 2007. Models, basic principles and skills of communication. In C. Kapoli (Ed.), Counselling Horizons for School Guidance - SOS Orientation (pp. 508-530). Athens: Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences (in Greek).

Makrygiannis P.S., Papakitsos E.C., 2015. Writing or programming an essay? An interdisciplinary systemic experiment in language teaching. Journal of Global Research in Education and Social Science 4(1): 16-24.

Messing J.K., 1993. Mediation: An Intervention Strategy for Counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development 72: 67–72.

Noaks J., Noaks L., 2009. School-based peer mediation as a strategy for social inclusion. Pastoral Care in Education 27(1): 53-61.

Ohio Department of Education, 2002. School Conflict Management: Evaluating Your Conflict Resolution Education Program. A Guide for Educators and Evaluators. Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management.

Olweus D., 1997. Bully/victim problems in school: knowledge base and an effective intervention program. The Irish Journal of Psychology 18(2): 170–190.

Olweus D., 2009. Bullying and violence at school. What we know and what we can do. (Trans. E. Markozane, year of original publication: 1993). Athens: Society of Psychosocial Health of Children and Adolescents (in Greek).

Opotow S.V., 1991. Adolescent peer conflicts: Implications for students and for schools. Education and Urban Society 23(4): 416–441.

Orme-Johnson C., Cason-Snow M., 2002. Basic Mediation Training. Trainer’s Manual. Mediation@MIT.

Panousis I., 2011. Conflicts and crisis management at school. In T. Thanos (Ed.), Mediation in school and society. Remedial justice, school mediation, criminal conciliation. Athens: Pedio (in Greek).

Papakitsos E.C., 2015. A Systemic Application of Graph Theory in Issues of Public Administration. International Journal of Management Sciences 5(11): 716-722.

Papakitsos E., 2010. Organizational Method for Analysing Systems. Athens: E.K. Thessalou (in Greek).

Papakitsos E., 2013a. The Systemic Modeling via Military Practice at the Service of any Operational Planning. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Science 3(9): 176-190.

Papakitsos E.C., 2013b. Linguistic Software Engineering: I. Preparation. Athens: National Library of Greece (in Greek).

Papakitsos E.C., Katsigiannis S.V., 2015. An Application of Systems Theory to the Perception of Combat in Martial Arts. International Journal of Martial Arts 1: 25-34.

Papakitsos E.C., Makrygiannis P.S., Tseles D.I., 2015. Modelling the application of Blended-Learning in Career Guidance projects of the Hellenic Secondary Education. International Scientific Conference eRA–10: The SynEnergy Forum, Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Aigaleo, Greece.

Parsons T., 1977. Social Systems and the Evolution of Action Theory. New York: Free Press.

Porismata Dialogou, 2016. National and Social Dialogue for Education: Findings, Suggestions and Deadlines for Implementation. Athens: Standing Committee for Culture Affairs of the Parliament. Accessed 31 May 2016 (in Greek).

Pressman R., 1987. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING: A Practitioner's Approach. 2nd Edition, London: McGraw-Hill.

Restorative Justice Council, 2011. Best Practice Guidance for Restorative Practice. London.

Rigby K., 2012. Bullying interventions in schools: Six basic approaches. Boston: Wiley.

Ross D.T., 1977. Structured Analysis: A Language for Communicating Ideas. IEEE Trans. Software Engineering 1977: 16-34.

Sanders M., 1991. Communication Technology Today and Tomorrow. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.

Sandy S., 2004. The Development of Conflict Resolution Skills: Preschool to Adulthood. Ιn M. Deutsch, P. Coleman & E. Marcus (Eds.), The Handbook of Conflict Resolution Theory and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Shannon H., 2008. Mediation and Counseling Services: A Viable Partnership. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy 23(1): 30-39.

Stitt A.J., 2004. Mediation: a practical guide. London: Cavendish Publishing Limited.

Von Bertalanffy L., 1968. General system theory: Essays on its foundation and development. rev. ed., New York: George Braziller.

Wiener N., 1948. Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT-Press.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015 - 2018. European Journal of Alternative Education Studies (ISSN 2501-5915) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).