Konstantinos Panagiotis Kostopoulos, Thanassis Karalis


This article presents the results of a survey on the motivation and barriers of unemployed people regarding their participation in lifelong learning programs in a prefecture of Greece. As for the methodology followed, we selected the quantitative research, which was based on the collection of quantitative research data from 109 unemployed persons using a structured questionnaire during November and December 2019. The questionnaire used in this study was based on the PRB Questionnaire, which was slightly adjusted to fit the unemployed population. Specifically, most of the unemployed (62.4%) who participated in this survey stated that they did not participate in any seminar, training program or educational activity related to their profession. Even lower participation rates are found in general adult education programs, with only 22% saying they have attended some educational activity. Regarding the motivation of unemployed people to participate in a vocational training program, the research participants stated that finding a job was the most important motivation. They then set priorities to be more efficient in their jobs, to increase their financial returns and to maintain their future jobs. With regard to the barriers for unemployed people to participate in a vocational training program, the most important obstacle in all questions is the cost of participation. Next in the hierarchy are the lack of information, the difficulty of moving, the lack of time due to work obligations, the lack of time for occupations and the lack of time due to family obligations.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


participation, motivation, barriers, unemployed, Greece

Full Text:



Anderson, D., & Niemi, J. (1969). Adult Education and the Disadvantaged Adult. US Department of Health, Education & Welfare Office of Education.

Boeren, E. (2011). Participation in Adult Education: Attitudes and Barriers. US-China Education Review A, 3, 369-382.

Boshier, R. (1971). Motivational Orientations of Adult Education Participants: A Factor Analytic Exploration of Houle’s Typology. Adult Education Quarterly, 21(2), 3-26.

Cross, K. P. (1981). Adults as learners. Jossey-Bass.

Desjardins, R., Rubenson, K., & Milana, M. (2006). Unequal Chances to Participate in Adult Learning: International Perspectives. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 83. International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) UNESCO.

Edwards, R., Sieminski, S., & Zeldin, D. (1993). Αdult Learners, Education and Training. Routledge.

HAS – Hellenic Statistical Authority (2019, November 1). Labor Force Survey. Β΄ Quarter 2019. Hellenic Statistical Authority.

Eurostat (2019, November 5). Life Long Learning Statistics Explained. Eurostat.

INE-GSEE (2020). Requirements and influential factors for engaging unemployed lowskilled Adults over 45 years old in training. INE GSEE.

Iñiguez-Berrozpe, T., Elboj-Saso, C., Flecha, A., & Marcaletti, F. (2019). Benefits of Adult Education Participation for Low-Educated Women. Adult Education Quarterly August 2019 1–25.

Jones, Α. & Field, J. (1989) Attitudes to open learning: A survey of unemployed adults, The Vocational Aspect of Education, 41(108), 21-24.

Karalis, T. (2017). Shooting a moving target: The Sisyphus boulder of increasing participation in adult education during the period of economic crisis. Journal of Adult and Continuing Education 23(1), 78–96.

Karalis, T. (2013). Barriers and motivation for the participation of adults in lifelong learning. INE-IME GSEVEE.

Karalis, T. (2018). The participation of adults in lifelong learning. Barriers and motivation for Participation (2011-2016). INE-IME GSEVEE.

Karantinos, D. (2010). Participation in lifelong learning: Trends and perspectives. In D. Vergidis & Α. Kokkos (Ed.), Adult education international approaches and Greek routes (pp. 43-62). Metaichmio Editions.

Kostopoulos, Κ. P. (2013). The concept of work in Orthodox monasticism as a source of inspiration for the modern working reality. (Master dissertation Thesis, Hellenic Open University).

McGivney, V. (1994). Veronica Wasted Potential: Training and Career Progression for Part-Time and Temporary Workers. National Institute of Adult Continuing Education.

Newton, B., Hurstfield, J., Miller, L., Akroyd, K., & Gifford, J. (2005). Training participation by age amongst unemployed and inactive people. Department for Work and Pensions.

Paladanius, S. (2019, November 10). The Rationality of Reluctance and Indifference Toward Adult Education: Difficulties in Recruiting Unemployed Adults to Adult Education. New Prairie Press.

Patterson, M. (2018). The Forgotten 90%: Adult Nonparticipation in Education. Adult Education Quarterly 68(1), 41–62.

Pont, B. (2004). Improving Access to and Participation in Adult Learning in OECD Countries. European Journal of Education, 39(1), No. 1, 31-45.

Roosmaa, E. & Saar, E. (2017). Adults who do not want to participate in learning: a cross-national European analysis of their perceived barriers, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 36(3), 254-277.

Rubenson, K., & Desjardins, R. (2009). The impact of welfare state regimes on barriers to participation in adult education: A bounded agency model. Adult Education Quarterly, 2009(1), 187-207.

Rubenson, K., & Desjardins, R. (2013). Participation Patterns in Adult Education: the role of institutions and public policy frameworks in resolving coordination problems. European Journal of Education, 48(2), 262-280.

Wurzburg, G. (2005). Why Economic and Financial Sustainability Matter for Lifelong Learning. European Journal of Education, 40(1), 69-91.

ΟAED (2019, November 2). Recorded data of registered unemployment for the Prefecture of Achaia. OAED information system.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015 - 2022. European Journal of Alternative Education Studies (ISSN 2501-5915) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).