Harriet Wambui Njui


This paper reviews literature on selected pedagogical practices with a view to making recommendations on how teacher training colleges in Kenya could employ collaborative pedagogies in instruction in order to nurture teacher trainees with knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that prepare them to effectively facilitate learning in schools after pre-service training. Collaborative pedagogies have the advantage of developing learners with 21st century skills such as creativity, critical thinking, problem solving and innovation. The skills enable them to confront the numerous societal challenges emanating from the dynamic technology. Further, with technology support, the pedagogies promote inclusive education through individualized learning that is personalized and self-directed. The paper recommends that the Teacher education programme in Kenya should embrace reforms in curricula and teaching methods to facilitate use of pedagogical practices that develop teacher trainees with the skills needed in today’s vast society. This could prepare them to offer holistic quality and relevant education that can contribute to the development of the society. 


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



pedagogy, collaboration, holistic education, personalized learning, transmission model


Al-Madany, R. (2010). Reflection in Teacher Education. https://raghdah.wordpress.com/2010/02/08/reflection-in-education

Barkely, E.F., Cross, K.P. and Howell Major, C. (2014). Collaborative Learning Techniques: A Handbook for College Faculty. 2nd edn. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Barron, B. and Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Teaching for meaningful learning: a review of research on inquiry-based and cooperative learning. L. Darling-Hammond, B. Barron, P.D. Pearson, A.H. Schoenfeld, E.K. Stage, T.D. Zimmerman, G.N. Cervetti and J.L. Tilson (eds), Powerful Learning: What We Know About Teaching for Understanding. San Francisco,

Calif., Jossey-Bass/John Wiley & Sons. www.edutopia.org/pdfs/edutopia-teaching-for-meaningful-learning.pdf.

Basic Education Curriculum Framework. Kenya Institute of Education (2017). https://www.kicd.ac.ke/images/downloads/curriculumframework.pdf

Brookfield, S.D. (1995). Becoming a Critical Reflective Teacher. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Brown-Martin, G. (2014). Learning {Re}imagined. London, Bloomsbury Academic

Bull, A. and Gilbert, J. (2012). Swimming out of our Depth: Leading Learning in 21st Century Schools. Wellington, New Zealand Council for Educational Research. www.nzcer.org.nz/system/files/Swimming%20out%20of%20our%20depth%20final.pdf.

Bunyi, G.W. (2011). Teacher Preparation and Continuing Professional Development. https://www.sussex.ac.uk/webteam/gateway/file.php?name=report-kenya...pdf.

Carneiro, R. (2007). The big picture: understanding learning and meta-learning challenges. European Journal of Education, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 151-172. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/enhanced/doi/10.1111/j.1465-3435.2007.00303.x/.

Carneiro, R. and Draxler, A. (2008). Education for the 21st century: lessons and challenges. European Journal of Education, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 149-160. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-3435.2008.00348.x/pdf

Cooper, M. (2007). Student Support Services at Community College: A Strategy for Increasing Student Persistence and Attainment. Institute for Higher Education Policy.

Cornell University Center for Teaching Excellence. (2014a). Problem-Based Learning (online). www.cte.cornell.edu/teaching-ideas/engaging-students/problem-based-learning.htm.

Davies, A., Fidler, D. and Gorbis, M. (2011). Future Work Skills 2020. Palo Alto, Calif., University of Phoenix Research Institute.


Dewey, J. (1933). How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to the Educative Process. Boston: D.C. Heath.

Education for All. United Nations (2015). www.unesco.org/new/.../education/.../education-for-all/efa-goal..).

Facer, K. (2011). Learning Futures: Education, Technology and Social Change. New York, Routledge.

_______. (2012). Taking the 21st Century Seriously: Young People, Education and Socio-technical Futures. Oxford Review of Education, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 97-113. www.tandfonline.Com/doi/full/10.1080/03054985.2011.577951#.U5sdq3JdV1Y.

Farrell, T.S.C. (2007). Reflective Language Teaching: From Research to Practice. Continuum. Pp 1-13.

Furlong, J. and Davies, C. (2012). Young people, new technologies and learning at home: taking context seriously. Oxford Review of Education, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 45-62.

Freire, P. (2006). Pedagogy of the oppressed 30th anniversary publication. Continuum International Publishing Group.

Future of Learning Group (2014). Linked In status updates. Touch.

Gichui, L. (2015). Alternative Methods of Financing Higher Education in Kenya. International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology ISSN: 2313- 3759, 2 (5).

Glossary of Quality Assurance in Japanese Higher Education (2007). National Institution for Academic Degrees and University Evaluation: Tokyo

ISC-I. (2004). Learning in the 21st Century: Towards Personalization. Dublin, Department of the Taoiseach, Information Society Commission – Ireland. www.dcenr.gov.ie/NR/rdonlyres/82EF3D60-C224-430B-8639F3982767EC84/0/.Learninginthe21stCenturyDec04.pdf.

Jay, J.K., & Johnson, K.L. (2002). Capturing Complexity: A Typology for Reflective Practice for Teacher Education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18 (2), 73-85.

Kafu, P.A. (2015). Reforms and Innovations in Teacher Education: facilitator of access, quality and equity as emerging issues in education. European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (www.eajournals.org).

_______. (2013). Raging Controversies in Teacher Education in Africa: The Question of Who Should Be the Prospective Teacher, Who Should Prepare Them and How Should They Be Prepared. www.jetems.scholarlinkresearch.com/articles/Raging%20Controversies.pdf.

______. (2011). Teacher Education in Kenya. Emerging Issues-Europa EU. https://europa.eu/capacity4dev/file/15908/download?token=wVi2rChq.

Kiruhi, M., Githua, B., & Mboroki, G. (2009). Methods of construction: A Guide for Teachers and Teacher Educators. Gugno Books & Allie: Ongata Rongai.

Laal, M., Naseri, A. S., Laal, M. and Khattami-Kermanshahi, Z. (2013). What do we achieve from learning in collaboration? Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 93, pp. 1427-1432. http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1877042813035027/1-s2.0-S1877042813035027-main.pdf?_tid=c337599acbd8-11e3-bb81-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1398361940_b9c6403aea78fcb4bdeefbf45e78a820.

Laal, M., Laal, M. and Khattami-Kermanshahi, Z. (2012). 21st century learning: learning in collaboration. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 47, pp. 1696-1701. http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1877042812026213/1-s2.0-S1877042812026213-main.pdf?_tid=7d74a7f8-cbda-11e3-9677-00000aab0f6b&acdnat=1398362682_1eeebc5d8a0e245ca19c5344c54ba238

Mansilla, V.B. and Jackson, A. (2011). Global Competence: Preparing Our Youth to Engage the World. New York, Asia Society. http://asiasociety.org/files/book-globalcompetence.pdf.

McLoughlin, C. and Lee, M.J.W. (2008a). The three p’s of pedagogy for the networked society: personalization, participation, and productivity. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 10-27. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ895221.pdf.

National Research Council. (2012). Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century. Washington DC, National Academies Press.

Nyerere, J. (2009). Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) sector mapping in Kenya. Edukans Foundation, Durtch Schokland TVET programme.

NZME (2007). The New Zealand Curriculum Online: Effective Pedagogy. Wellington, New Zealand Ministry of Education. http://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/The-New-Zealand-Curriculum

Ochangi, Ayot, H., Kamina, Ondigi, S. & Kimemia (2015). Improving Student Teaching for Quality Teacher Preparation: A Kenyan University Case. African Journal of Ó Grádaigh, S. (2014). School in a Box – Burkina Faso (Interviews: 20 February 2014 and 20 June 2014). National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland. http://vimeo.com/87853453.

P21. (2007a). The Intellectual and Policy Foundations of the 21st Century Skills Framework. Washington DC, Partnership for 21st Century Skills. http://route21.p21.org/images/stories/epapers/skills_foundations_final.pdf.

________. (2007b). 21st Century Curriculum and Instruction. Washington DC, Partnership for 21st Century Skills. http://route21.p21.org/images/stories/epapers/r21_ci_epaper.pdf

________. (2013). Reimagining Citizenship for the 21st Century: A Call to Action for Policymakers and Educators. Washington DC, Partnership for 21st Century Skills. www.p21.org/storage/documents/Reimagining_Citizenship_for_21st_Century_webversion.pdf.

Principles of Pedagogy/Ed Tech Now (2013). https://edtechnow.net/2013/05/12/pedagogy/.

Principles of Learning and Teaching (2017). www.education.vic.gov.au › ... › Principles of Learning and Teaching P-12.

Principles of Learning and Teaching. www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/support/Pages/teaching.aspx.

Redecker, C., Ala-Mutka, K., Bacigalupo, M., Ferrari, A. and Punie, Y. (2009). Learning 2.0 – The Impact of Web 2.0Innovations on Education and Training in Europe: Final Report. Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC55629.Pdf.

Redecker, C. and Punie, Y. (2010). Learning 2.0: promoting innovation in formal education and training in Europe. M. Wolpers, P.A. Kirschner, M. Scheffel, S. Lindstaedt and V. Dimitrova (eds), Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice EC-TEL 2010. Berlin, Springer, pp. 308-323. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-16020-2_21#page-1.

_____. (2013). The future of learning 2025: developing a vision for change. Future Learning, Vol. 1, pp. 3-17.


Saavedra, A. and Opfer, V.( 2012). Teaching and Learning 21st Century Skills: Lessons from the Learning Sciences. A Global Cities Education Network Report. New York, Asia Society. http://asiasociety.org/files/rand-0512report.pdf

Schon, D.A. (1987). Educating the Reflective Practitioner: Toward a New Design for Teaching and Learning in the Professions. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass.

Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reforms. Havard Education Review, 57 (1):1-22.

Solis, B. (2014). The future of learning is stuck in the past: why education is less about technology and more about behavior. Social Media Today (online). http://socialmediatoday.Com/briansolis/2282476/future-learning-stuck-past.

Thiel, T. (1999). Reflection on Critical Incidents. “Prospects, 14” (1), 44-52.

UNESCO-ERF. (2013). UNESCO Principles on Education for Development Beyond 2015: Perspectives on the Post-2015 International Development Agenda. Paris, UNESCO Education Research and Foresight. http://en.unesco.org/post2015/sites/post2015/files/UNESCOPrinciplesnEducationforDevelopmentBeyond2015.Pdf.

UNESCO-IBE. (2013). Statement on Learning in the post-2015 Education and Development Agenda. Geneva, UNESCO International Bureau of Education. www.unesco.org/newfileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/ED/pdf/UNESCOIBEStatement.pdf.

UNESCO Four Pillars of Education (2015). https://www.slideshare.net/SumitraKan/unesco-four-pillars-of-education.

The UNESCO’s Four Pillars of Learning-SlideShare (2013). https://www.slideshare.net/sirclav/the-four-pillars-of-learning.

UNESCO and UNICEF. (2013a). Envisioning Education in the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Executive Summary. Paris, UNICEF and UNESCO. http://en.unesco.org/post2015/sites/post2015/files/Post-2015_en_web.pdf.

Using Case Studies to Teach. Center for Teaching and Learning. www.bu.edu/ctl/teaching-resources/using-case-studies-to-teach/.

Vockley, M. and P21. (2007). Maximizing the Impact: The Pivotal Role of Technology in a 21st Century Education System. Washington, DC, Partnership for 21st Century Skills. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED519463.pdf

Weimer, M. (2013). Learner-Centered teaching. Five key changes to practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Weimer, M. (2012). Five Characteristics of Learner-centered Teaching-Faculty Focus. https://www.facultyfocus.com › Articles › Effective Teaching Strategies

What is a Learning Environment/IGI Global.


Woods, D. (2014). Problem-Based Learning (PBL). McMaster University. http://chemeng.mcmaster.ca/problembased-Learning.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Harriet Wambui Njui

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).