Amos Williams, Jacob Istifanus


Ensuring access to quality education for girls across the globe is crucial to sustainable development. Several barriers such as poverty, gender inequality, poor infrastructures, insecurity, etc. are known to impede the realization of girls’ right to education. These issues are further aggravated by armed conflicts such as the Boko Haram insurgency. This study investigated the threat posed by the Boko Haram insurgency on the girl-child’s access and inclusion in education in the North-eastern part of Nigeria. The study answered a research question and tested a research hypothesis. The target population was the Northeast of Nigeria. The sample for the study was drawn from Adamawa state. The sample size was 180 teachers randomly sampled from public primary and secondary schools in the three senatorial zones in the state. A ten item Likert scale designed by the researchers was used to collect data. The instrument was validated by experts in Test and Measurement and the reliability of the instrument was determined through test-retest method of testing reliability. A Crombach alpha correlation coefficient of .67 was obtained. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and Chi square test. The result of the study revealed the following barriers to access and inclusion: damage to school facilities, emotional disorders, fear and insecurity, stigma, poverty, unwanted pregnancy, forced marriage and lack of teachers. The hypothesis tested was rejected indicating that the girl-child’s access and inclusion in education in the North East of Nigeria has been significantly affected by the Boko Haram insurgency. The study recommended the use of flexible learning, abolition of school fees for girls, rehabilitation programmes for victims of insurgency, guidance and counselling services and programmes to address stigmatizing attitudes toward girls and women to ensure access and inclusion in education.


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access, Boko Haram, insurgency, girl-child, education, Northeastern Nigeria


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