Hamit Özen, Selahattin Turan


This study was designed to develop a scale and examine its psychometric properties to offer a new complex adaptive leadership for school principals (CAL-SP). This was an exploratory mixed method research. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to develop and assess psychometric properties of the questionnaire. This study introduces the construct of complex adaptive school leadership, which comprises three dimensions: enabling leadership, managerial leadership and adaptive leadership. The scale shows internal consistency, reliability, construct validity and nomological validity explaining that the instrument had a good structure and reliability. Directions for future research and managerial implications of the new construct are discussed.


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school principal, complexity theory, complex adaptive leadership, complex adaptive systems, education


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