Hamit Özen, Selahattin Turan


This study was designed to develop a scale and examine its psychometric properties to offer a new complex adaptive leadership for school principals (CAL-SP). This was an exploratory mixed method research. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to develop and assess psychometric properties of the questionnaire. This study introduces the construct of complex adaptive school leadership, which comprises three dimensions: enabling leadership, managerial leadership and adaptive leadership. The scale shows internal consistency, reliability, construct validity and nomological validity explaining that the instrument had a good structure and reliability. Directions for future research and managerial implications of the new construct are discussed.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



school principal, complexity theory, complex adaptive leadership, complex adaptive systems, education


Adair, J. (2009). Leadership for innovation. London: Kogan Page.

Akbaba-Altun, S. (2001). Chaos and management. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice. 28: 451- 469.

Alpaydın, Y. (2008). Türkiye’de yoksulluk ve eğitim ilişkileri. Ilem Yillik, 3,(3): 49-64.

Bagozzi, R.P., Yi, Y & Phillips, L.W. (1991). Assessing construct validity in organizational research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36,421-458.

Beach, D. M., & Reinhartz, J. (2000). Supervisory leadership: Focus on instruction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Benedict, C. L. (2013). An examination of elementary school principal leadership: Seen through the lens of complexity theory (Order No. 10185102). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1859946468). Retrieved from

Blandin, N. M. (2008). Re-conceptualizing leadership for an era of complexity and uncertainty: A case study of leadership in a complex adaptive system (Order No. 3297144). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304646734). Retrieved from

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136-162). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Byrne, B. M. (1998). Structural equation modeling with LISREL, PRELIS and SIMPLIS: Basic concepts, applications and programming. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Calik, T., & Kurt, T. (2010). Development of school climate scale (SCS), validity and reliability study. Egitim Ve Bilim, 35(157), 167. Retrieved from

Carmines. E. G., & McIver, J. P. (1981). Analyzing models with unobserved variables. In G.W. Bohrnstedt & E.F. Borgatta (Eds.), Social measurement: Current issues. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Carley, K.M., & Hill, V. (2001) Structural change and learning within organizations. In: Lomi A, Larsen ER (eds) Dynamics of Organizations: Computational Modeling and Organizational Theories. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press/MIT Press, 63–92.

Cilliers, P. (1998). Complexity and postmodernism: Understanding complex systems. Routledge: London, UK.

Collins, K. M. T., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Jiao, Q. G. (2006). Prevalence of mixed methods sampling designs in social science research. Evaluation and Research in Education, 19: 83-101.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. California: Sage Publications.

Drucker, P. (2012). Management challenges for the 21st century. New York, NY: Routledge.

Edwards, J. R., Knight, D. K., Broome, K. M., & Flynn, P. M. (2010). The Development and Validation of a Transformational Leadership Survey for Substance Use Treatment Programs. Substance Use & Misuse, 45(9), 1279–1302.

Falconer, J. (2007) Emergence happens! Misguided paradigms regarding organizational change and the role of complexity and patterns in the change landscape. In: Capra F, Juarerro A, Sotolongo P, van Uden J (eds) Reframing Complexity: Perspectives from the North and South. Mansfield, MA: ISCE Publishing, 135–50.

Fin, C. (1991). We must take charge: Our schools and our future. New York: Free Press.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 1, 382–388.

Goyal, N. (2012). One size does not fit all. A student's assessment of school. New York: Alternative Education Resource Organisation.

Gullick, L. (1937). Notes on the theory of organization. In L. Gulick & L. Urwick (Eds.), Papers on the Science of Administration (pp. 1-46), New York, NY: Institute of Public Administration.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. NY: Prentice Hall International.

Hammer, R. J., Edwards, J. S., & Tapinos, E. (2012). Examining the strategy development process through the lens of complex adaptive systems theory. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 63(7): 909-919.

Handy, C. B. (1994). Understanding Organisations, London, UK: Penguin Books.

Heifetz, R. A. (1994). Leadership without easy answers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Hinkin, T.R. (1995). A review of scale development practices in the study of organizations. Journal of Management, 21, 967-988.

Hoe, S. L. (2008). Issues and procedures in adopting structural equation modeling technique. Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods, 3(1): 76–83.

Hu, L.T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999), Cutoff criteria for fit ındexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6 (1): 1-55.

Johnson, E. (2013). Exploring possible links between professional learning communities and complex adaptive systems (Order No. 3575631). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1459436592)

Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.

Kurtuldu, M. K., & Bulut, D. (2017). Development of a self-efficacy scale toward piano lessons. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 17, 835–857.

Leithwood, K. (1992). The move toward transformational leadership. Educational Leadership, 49(5), 8-12.

Lorenz, E. N. (1963). Deterministic nonperiodic flow. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 20: 130–141.

McKibben, S. S. (2015). Worth the risk. Education Update, 57(1): 1-4.

Marion, R., & Uhl-Bien, M. (2007). Complexity and strategic leadership. In: R. Hooijberg, J. Hunt, J. Antonakis, K. Boal, & N. Lane (Eds.), Being there even when you are not: Leading through structures, systems, and processes, Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Marion, R., & Uhl-Bien, M. (2003). Leadership in complex organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 12: 389–418.

McMillan, J. H., & Schumacher, S. (2006). Research in education: Evidence based inquiry. Boston, MA: Brown and Company.

Meriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation.San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. California: Sage.

Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw Hill.

Day, J. A. (2002). Complexity, accountability, and school improvement. Harvard

Educational Review, 72(3), 293-329.

OECD. (2008). 21st Century Learning: Research, Innovation and Policy Directions from recent OECD analyses

OECD. (2003), Networks of Innovation: Towards New Models for Managing Schools and Systems, (Schooling for Tomorrow series) OECD, Paris.

Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Collins, K. T. (2007). A typology of mixed methods sampling designs in social science research. The Qualitative Report 12(2): 281–316.

Ozen, H. (2013). Okul müdürlerine yönelik motivasyonel dil ölçeği: Türk kültürüne uyarlama, dil geçerliği ve faktör yapısının incelenmesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3(1), 87–103.

Ozen, H. (2015). Okul müdürlerinin kullandığı motivasyonel dilin intibak ettirici liderlik üzerine etkisi (Doktora tezi). Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Eskişehir.

Reckase, M. (2004). The real world is more complicated than we would like. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29(1).

Ritchie, B. W. (2004). Chaos, crises and disaster: A strategic approach to crisis management in the tourism industry. Tourism Management, 25(6), 669-683.

Ruelle, D. (1991). Chance and chaos. USA: Princeton University Press.

Schlechty, P. C. (2001). Shaking up the school house: How to support and sustain educational innovation. London: Jossey-Bass.

Schreiber, C., & Carley, K. M. (2006) Leadership style as an enable of organizational complex functioning. Emergence: Complexity and Organization 8(4): 61–76.

Snyder, S. (2013). The simple, the complicated, and the complex: Educational reform through the lens of complexity theory. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Sokolowski, R. (2000). Introduction to phenomenology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Stacey, R. D. (2001). Complex responsive processes in organisations: Learning and knowledge creation. Routledge: London, UK.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Pearson.

Torres, R., & Reeves, M. (2011). Adaptive leadership. Leadership Excellence, 28(7): 8-8.

Uhl-Bien, M., Marion, R., & McKelvey, B. (2007). Complexity leadership theory: Shifting leadership from the industrial age to the knowledge era. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(4): 298-318.

Webb, R., Bondy, E., & Rose, D. (1994, April). Governance and leadership dilemmas in restructured schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans: LA.

Whiffen, H. H. (2011). Becoming an adaptive leader. Military Review, 87(6): 108-114.

Wyatt, W. (2002). Be prepared: Communicating in a crisis. State Legislatures, 28(4): 31-35.

Sinha, J. P. B. (1981). The school complex: An unfinished experiment. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.

Weick, K. (1969). The Social Psychology of Organising. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Yang, F. X. (. (2008). Study on human resource management in colleges and universities based on strategic management (Order No. H374916). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: Business. (1026923671). Retrieved from

Yamashiro, K. (2006). Measuring school performance: The intersection of accountability *policy and complexity theory (Order No. 3247450). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (305368762). Retrieved from


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Hamit Özen, Selahattin Turan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).