Efthymia Saltidou, Michael Skoumios


In recent years, learning objects have been playing a crucial role in the teaching process. However, research focused on the analysis of science learning objects is particularly limited. The present study aims to analyze the science learning objects of the Greek Digital Learning Object Repository that are intended for primary school from a learning activities perspective. A total of 178 learning objects were analyzed. The analysis of learning objects from the perspective of the learning activities (cognitive and metacognitive) they activate in the students was carried out in line with the analysis framework of Overman, Vermunt, Meijer, Bulte and Brekelmans (2013). The analysis of learning objects showed that they are dominated by low level cognitive learning activities, while the learning objects that activate high level cognitive learning activities are limited. Finally, no learning objects activating metacognitive learning activities in the students were detected. 


question analysis, learning objects, science teaching, learning activities


Anderson R, Kulhavy R, Andre T, 1971. Feedback procedures in programmed instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology 62: 148-156.

Bloom BS, Krathwohl DR, 1956. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain. New York: Longmans Green.

Braswell JS, Lutkus AD, Grigg WS, Santapau SL, TayLim B, Johnson M, 2011. The Nation’s Report Card: Mathematics 2000, Washington, D. C.: National Center for Education Statistics.

Chiappe A, Segovia Y, Rincón Y, 2007. Toward an instructional design model based on learning objects. Educational Technology Research and Development 55(6): 671–681.

Costa A, 1985. Teacher Behaviors That Enable Student Thinking in Developing Minds. In A. L. Costa (Ed.), Developing minds: A resource book for teaching thinking. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Davila K, Talanquer V, 2010. Classifying end-of-chapter questions and problems for selected general chemistry textbooks used in the United States. Chemical Education Research 87(1): 97–101.

Friesen N, 2001. What are Educational Objects? Interactive Learning Environments 9(3): 219-230.

Gilbert JK, Bulte AMW, Pilot A, 2011. Concept development and transfer in contextbased science education. International Journal of Science Education 33(6): 817–837.

Giordan A, De Vecchi G, 1996. As origens do saber: das concepções dos aprendentes aos conceitos científicos. Porto Alegre, Brazil: Artes Médicas.

Holliday W, Whittaker H, Loose K, 1984. Differential effects of verbal aptitude and study questions on comprehension of science concepts. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 21: 140-143.

IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee, 2002. Draft standard for learning object metadata.

Kahveci A, 2010. Quantitative analysis of science and chemistry textbooks for indicators of reform: A complementary perspective. International Journal of Science Education 32(11): 1495–1519.

Kay RH, Knaack L, 2009. Assessing Learning, Quality and Engagement in Learning Objects: The Learning Object Evaluation Scale for Students (LOES-S). Education Technology Research and Development 57(2), 147-168.

Nakiboglu C, Yildirir HE, 2011. Analysis of Turkish high school chemistry textbooks and teacher-generated questions about gas laws. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education 9(5): 1047–1071.

Nesbit JC, Li J, 2004. Web-Based Tools for Learning Object Evaluation. Elearning 2: 3-8.

Overman Μ, Vermunt D, Meijer P, Bulte B and Brekelmans M, 2013. Textbook Questions in Context-Based and Traditional Chemistry Curricula Analysed from a Content Perspective and a Learning Activities Perspective. International Journal of Science Education 35(17): 2954–2978.

Pizzini EL, Shepardson DP, Abell SK, 1992. The questioning level of select middle school science textbooks. School Science and Mathematics 92(2): 74–79.

Reyes R, Reys B, Lapan R, Holliday G, 2003. Assessing the Impact of Standards-Based Middle Grades Mathematics Curriculum Materials on Student Achievement. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 34(1): 74-95.

Shepardson DP, Pizzini EL, 1991. Questioning levels of junior high schools science textbooks and their implications for learning textual information. Science Education 75(6): 673–682.

Sinclair J, Joy M, Yau JYK, Hagan S, 2013. A Practice-Oriented Review of Learning Objects. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies 6(2): 177–192.

Skoumios M, Diakos N, 2015. Questioning Levels of Greek Middle School Chemistry Textbooks from a Learning Activities Perspective. The International Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Learning 22(3): 15-30.

Vargo J, Nesbit JC, Belfer K, Archambault A, 2003. Learning object evaluation: Computer mediated collaboration and inter-rater reliability. International Journal of Computers and Applications 25(3): 198–205.

Vasconcelos C, Torres J, Dourado LGP, Leite L, 2012. Questions in science textbooks: do they prompt students' inquiry and problem-based learning? In C. Bruguière, A. Tiberghien & P. Clément (Eds.), E-Book Proceedings of the ESERA 2011 Conference: Science learning and Citizenship. Part [6] (co-ed. Manuela Welzel-Breuer and Conxita Marquez) (pp. 102-107) Lyon, France: European Science Education Research Association. ISBN: 978-9963-700-44-8.

Vermunt JD, 1996. Metacognitive, cognitive and affective aspects of learning styles and strategies: A phenomenographic analysis. Higher Education 31: 25–50.

Vermunt JD, Verloop N, 1999. Congruence and friction between learning and teaching. Learning and Instruction 9: 257–280.

Wiley D, 2002. Connecting learning objects to instructional design theory: A definition, a metaphor, and a taxonomy. In D. Wiley (Ed.), The instructional use of learning objects (pp. 3–24). Bloomington, IN: Agency for Instructional Technology.

Wixson K, 1983. Postreading questions: Answer interactions and children’s learning from text. Journal of Educational Psychology 30: 413-423.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Efthymia Saltidou, Michael Skoumios

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).