Judy Ngusa, Nyakwara Begi, Mary Ndani


Mathematics for young children lays a foundation of basic concepts and skills on which future learning is built. However, despite the role it plays in an individual and society, in Kenya it has continued to be poorly performed by students in national examinations. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between school learning environment and pupils’ performance in mathematics. Ecological model by Urie Bronfenbrenner was used to guide the study. The study used descriptive research design. Dependent variable was pupils’ performance in mathematics; while independent variable was school learning environment. The target population was standard three pupils and teachers in Dandora Zone, in Nairobi County. Purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were employed to select the sample of the study. Questionnaire, achievement proforma and observation schedules were used to collect data. Quantitative and Qualitative methods were used to analyse data and results presented using tables and text.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



school learning environment; pupils; performance in mathematics

Full Text:



Adeboyeje, R. A. (1994). Managing of school physical facilities. Ibadan Fountain Publication.

Adeogun, A. A. (2001). The principal and the financial management of public secondary schools in Osun State. Journal of Educational System and Development. 5(1), pp.1 – 10.

Aduda, D. (2003). Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education, Examination Results Released by Minister of Education. Daily Nation, Nairobi: Nation Media Group Ltd.

Afolabi, F. (2002). School Factors and Learner Variables as Correlates of Senior Secondary Physics Achievement in Ibadan (Unpublished PhD Thesis). University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Ayodele, I. (2004). Teaching and school facility management. Lagos: Matthouse Press.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Designs. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Education for all (EFA) (2005). EFA Global Monitoring Reports. UNESCO, Paris.

Jekanyifa, A. (2010) Effects of Instructional Resources on the Academic Performance of Students in Nigeria.

Kaloki, J.W. (2012). Pupil-Teacher Ratio and Its Impact on Academic Performance in Public Primary Schools in Central Division, Machakos County. Nairobi: Unpublished Master’s Thesis Project, Kenyatta University.

Karimi, M. (2013). School Based Factors Affecting Performance of Students in KCSE Public Day Secondary Schools in Mathioya District Kenya: Unpublished Med Thesis, Kenyatta University.

Kenya National Examination Council (2010) Kenya Certificate of Secondary School 2009 Examination Results.

KNEC. (2006). 2001 K.C.S.E Mathematics and science performance analysis. Nairobi: Unpublished Final Report on Zambia’s National Assessment Project. Lusaka: M.O.E.

KNEC. (1996). Peg Teachers Pay to Performance: East Africa Standard. May 10th p.6.

Majanga, E. K, Nasongo, J. W & Sylvia, V. K. (2010). The Effect of Class Size Interaction During Mathematics Discourse in the Wake of Free Primary Education: A Study of Public Primary Schools in Nakuru Municipality, Current Research Journal of Social Sciences 3(1) pp 44-49.

Meremikwu, A. N. (2008). Instructional Aids, Gender and Primary School Pupils’ Achievement and Retention in Mathematics in Cross River State, Nigeria: Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Calabar, Nigeria.

Ministry of Education Science and Technology, (1999). The early childhood development project: Report of the ECD baseline survey on health and nutrition, community support grants and transition from preschool to primary school in G.O.K. Districts.

Moyer, J. (1995). School Structure and Process. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.

Munda, S. W.Tanui, E. K. Kaberia, L. (2000). Relationship between Selected educational Facilities and Students Academic Performance in Secondary Schools in Bungoma District, Kenya. Kenya Journal of Education Planning, Economics and Management, Eldoview Graphics, Kakamega: Kenya.

Mutai, B.K. (2006). How to write quality research proposal: a complete and simplified recipe. New York: Talley Publications.

Mutunga, P. and Breakell, J. (1992). Mathematics Education. Nairobi, Kenya. Educational.

National Council of Teachers of mathematics. (2002) .Early Childhood Mathematics Promoting good beginnings.

NCTM. (1992). Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning. A project of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, New York: Macmillan.

Ndani, M. N (2008). Impacts of community participation on pre-school teacher motivation and physical learning environment in Thika District, Kenya. PhD. Thesis, Kenyatta University, Nairobi.

Njagi, I. N. (2013). An Investigation into Some of the Factors Which Influence Students' Performance in Embu District, Embu County, Kenya: Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Kenyatta University.

Schoenfield, A. H. (2012). Problem Solving in Mathematics. New York: The Association of America Committee on the Teaching of Undergraduate Mathematics.

Skemp, R. (2008). The Psychology of Learning Mathematics. Hillside: Lawrence Eribaum Associates.

SMASSE (1998). Baseline Studies Project. Nairobi: Unpublished Research Report.

Tuncay and Omur. (2009). Identifying Factors Affecting the Mathematics Achievement of Students for Better Instruction Design. Turkey.

Umameh M. (2011). Survey of Students’ Poor Performance in Mathematics. Bristol: University of Bristol.

UNICEF (2009). Child Friendly Schools Manual. UNICEF division of communication 3 United Nations Plaza, New York: NY 10017, USA.

Uwezo Kenya. (2010). Are Our Children Learning? Annual Learning Assessment Report. Nairobi: Uwezo Net.

Whitebread, D. (1999). Interactions between children's metacognitive processes, working memory, choice of strategies and performance during problem-solving, European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14 (4), 489-507.

Zachariah, K. (2011). Adequacy and the Extent to which Teaching and Learning Resources for Mathematics are Available and Used for Achievement in the Subject in Secondary School in Kenya. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, Volume 1 No. 3.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Judy Ngusa, Nyakwara Begi, Mary Ndani

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).