Charilaos K. Zaragkas, Vasiliki Pliogou


The purpose of this work was to approach and promote the concepts of responsibility and respect for children aged six years through the introduction, structure and implementation of a program that emphasized physical education. Specifically, the program included the creation of a positive learning environment with support, emotional security, and integration of non-exclusion activities, the establishment of behavioral rules, comparison to previous performance of the same ones, personalization of actions according to the children’s interests, behavior feedback, maintaining of positive expectations, collaboration with all, traditional games and dances from different countries, as well as teaching to resolve disputes. Additionally, the techniques of cause- result, moral dilemma, personal view, window perspective and Socrates' dialectic method were used. Twenty-four children (13 boys, 11 girls) from a public kindergarten in the city of Ioannina participated. Prior to the implementation of the program, the parents and primary education authorities were informed and their consent was given. The program was implemented for three months in the spring of 2016 and was done twice a week for about 30 minutes. The method of the semi-structured interview was used in the initial and final assessment to approximate the concepts of respect and responsibility by children. The evaluation of the program showed that the children were initially acquainted with a few things but then they got to know even more about the value of these concepts and actions for the well-being of the wider community. The children learned to be more observative because they participated in and attended carefully the discussions and activities. They also approached the concepts of translations interdisciplinarily (language, literature, history, folklore, geography). Generally, they developed their motor skills, and it seemed they liked the program a lot.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



human rights, human values, respect, responsibility, motor skills, physical education, project

Full Text:



Anderson P. (2002). Assessment and development of executive function (EF) during childhood. Child Neuropsychol. 8 71–82 10.1076/chin.

Anglin, J. M., (1985), «The child’s expressible Knowledge of word concepts: What preschoolers can say about the meanings of some nouns and verbs», In Κ. E. Anderson, J. R., (1978), «Arguments concerning representations for mental imagery». Psy¬chological Review, 85, pp. 249 – 277. In Mexi, E. (2013), Artistic forms as fundamental elements of communication and learning process in the area of kindergarten, Doctoral Thesis, Pedagogical Department of Kindergarten of the University of Ioannina, National Archives of Doctoral Theses ECT ( p.: 184.

Babila, E., Dimopoulou, M., Zombolas, A., Fraktzis, A., Hatzimichael, M. (2008). The participation of kindergartens in environmental education programs, Preschool Education in the 21st Century: Theoretical Approaches and Didactic Practices, Edited: D - M., Kakana & G., Simouli, Publishing: Epicentro, Athens, pp: 209-215.

Berk, L. (2002). Infants, children and adolescents. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Bloom & Krathwohl, (2000), Classification of teaching objectives, - Cognitive field, Scientific Editing: A. Lambraki-Paganou, ed.: Codex, Thessaloniki, pp: 47 – 66.

Brooks, P. J., Hanauer, J. B., Padowska, B., & Rosman, H. (2003). The role of selective attention in preschoolers’ rule use in a novel dimensional card sort. Cognitive Development, 117, 111–121.

Chatzihristou, Ch. (2011). Social Adequacy - Social Skills - Social Education and Emotional Education in School, Programs to promote mental health and learning in the school community, Athens: Tipothito.

Christensen, L. Β., (2007), The Experimental Method in Scientific Research, (Scientific Editing: A. Giannakoulopoulos & N. Papastavrou) Athens, Ed.: Papazisis, pp.: 23 – 38.

Clermont, A. N. (1980). Social interaction and cognitive development in children. London, UK: Academic Press.

Dempster F. N. (1992). The rise and fall of the inhibitory mechanism – toward a unified theory of cognitive- development and aging. Dev. Rev. (12 ): 45–75.

Dewey, J., (1933). How We Think? Boston: Heath, pp. 147 – 150.

Diamond A. (2002). “Normal development of prefrontal cortex from birth to young adulthood: cognitive functions, anatomy, and biochemistry,” in Principles of Frontal Lobe Function eds Stuss D. T., Knight R. T., editors. (New York: Oxford University Press) 466–503.

Durston S., Davidson M. C., Tottenham N., Galvan A., Spicer J., Fossella J. A., et al. (2006). A shift from diffuse to focal cortical activity with development. Dev. Sci. 9 1–8 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2005.00454.

Georgiou, Eu, Konstantinou, G. (2008). Application of a co-educational program to a child with cerebral palsy and learning difficulties, Preschool Education in the 21st Century: Theoretical Approaches and Didactic Practices, Edited by: D.M., Kakana & G., Simouli, Ed.: Epicentro, Athens, pp: 283 - 289.

Gresham, F. M. (1983). Social Validity in the Assessment of children’s social skills: Establishing standards for social competency. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 1, 299 – 307.

Hughes, F. (1999). Children, play and development. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Kambas, A. Gourgoulis, V., Fatouros, I, Aggelousis, N., Providakis, E., & Taxildaris, K. (2005). The Influence of a Psychomotor Program on Kinetics Performance of Preschool Children, Journal of Physical Education and Sports, 56, pp: 49 - 59.

Kambas, A., Venetsanou, F., Giannakidou, D., Fatouros, I., Avloniti, A., Chatzinikolaou, A., Draganidis, D., & Zimmer, R. (2012). The Motor- Proficiency– Test for children between 4 and 6 years of age (MOT 4-6): An investigation of its suitability in Greece. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33: 1626 – 1632.

Kambitsis, C. (2004). Research in sports sciences - Statistical analysis assessment, Self-publishing, Thessaloniki, pp: 763-766.

Katsou - Zafrana, M. (2013). Pre-school years: the Golden Age of Human Life, Modern Kindergarten, Research Theory and Practice, Issue 92, March-April 2013, pp: 108-111.

Kostandelia, N., & Tsapakidou, A. (2009). Kinetic development and understanding of shapes and solids within a cross-curricular program at Kindergarten, Practical Book 6th Pan-Hellenic Conference on Science and New Technologies in Education - Faculty of Education, University of Western Macedonia, Florina Greece, pp: 462 - 469.

Koutras, S. (2010). Convincing Logos, Issue B, Ed.: Savvalas, Athens.

Kouttis, Ch., Konstantinidis, Th., Zervas, M., Tsaoula, K., & Bourcha, D. (2008). The promotion and health education in the day care center. A program focusing on the subjective risk assessment, The Preschool Education in the 21st Century: Theoretical Approaches and Didactical Practices, Edited by: D. - M., Kakanas & G., Simouli, Ed.: Epicentro, Athens, pp: 172-180 .

Koymen, B., Schmidt, M., Rost, L, Lieven, E., & Tomasello, M. (2015). Teaching versus enforcing ame rules in preschoolers’ peer nteractions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (in press).

Krappmann, L. (1989). Schulisches Lernen in interactionen mit gleichaltrigen. Zeitschrft für Pädagogik, 31 (3), 321 – 337.

Matsangouras, H., (2002), Teaching Strategies: Critical Thinking in Teaching Practice, Athens, pp: 220-224.

Mexi, E. (2013). Artistic forms as fundamental elements of communication and learning process in the area of kindergarten, Doctoral Thesis, Pedagogical Department of Kindergarten of the University of Ioannina, National Archives of Doctoral Theses ECT (

Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs, Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games "ATHENS 2004", (2001), Olympic Education from Theory to Practice - Project Manager: E. Kioumourtzoglou. Publishing: Livani, Athens.

Moriguchi, Y. (2014). The Early development of executive function and its relation to social interaction: a brief review. Frontiers in Psychology, 29 (5) p. 388.

Nelson, K., (1977), «The syntagmatic - paradigmatic shift revisited: a review of research and theory», Psychological bulletin,Vol. 84, Nol, pp. 93 - 116 Nelson (Ed), Children’s language, v.5, Hillsdale, NJ: Erinbum. Στο Μέξη, Ευγενία. (2013). Ό. π. σελ. 184

Office of Olympic Education, Ministry of Education and Culture, Implementing Programs Promoting Equality in Society, "KALLIPATERA" - Educational Book, Supervisor: I., Theodorakis

Papageorgiou, B.A. (2005). Psychiatry of children and adolescents. Thessaloniki, University Studio Press.

Rakoczy, H., Brosche, N., Warneken F., & Tomassello, M. (2009). Young children’s understanding of the context-relativity of normative rules in conventional games. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27, 445 – 456.

Rakoczy, H., Warneken, F., & Tomasello, M. (2008). The sources of normativity: Young children’s awareness of the normative structure of games. Developmental Psychology, 44(3), 875–881.

Searle, J. (1969). Speech acts: An essay on the philosophy of language. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Searle, J. (1995). The construction of social reality. New York: Free Press.

Siafarica, E, Orfanopoulou, A., Kainourgiou, S., Hatzimichael, M. (2008). The new programs as a bridge in the smooth transition of the child from the Kindergarten to the Primary School, The Preschool Education in the 21st Century: Theoretical Approaches and Didactic Practices, Edited: D - M., Kakana & G., Simouli, Ed.: Epicentro, Athens , pp: 383-389.

Valianza - Aftia, E. (2013). Experiential Communication Learning Near Nature in the Context of Brain Sciences, Modern Kindergarten, Research Theory and Practice, Issue 92, March-April, 2013, p.: 115.

Valsamaki, Chr. (2008). The role of the Project method in the development of the vocabulary of children in pre-school education, Preschool Education in the 21st Century: Theoretical Approaches and Didactic Practices, Edited by: D - M., Kakana & G., Simouli, Athens, pp: 267-274.

Werner, E. & Smith, R. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A longitudinal study of resilient children and youth. New York: McGraw – Hill.

Zaragas, Ch. (2013). Kinetic Performance of Infants and its Relationship to Physical Development Indicators, Scientific Yearbook of the Pedagogical Department of Kindergarten of the School of Educational Sciences of the University of Ioannina, 6th volume, pp: 160-201.

Zaragas, Ch., Pliogou, B., Mantzioukas, P., Stratis, P., & Anagnostopoulou, P. (2016). Physical Education Intervention Program for the Development and Conservation of the Multicultural Consciousness of Infants, Book of Practices at the 3rd International Conference on Preschool and School Pedagogy, Nicosia, Cyprus, pp: 104-105.

Zaragas, Ch., Pliogou, V., & Mantziouka, A. (2016). The contribution of an interventional program of psychokinetic education to the development and maintenance of the young children’s environmental sensitivity: the case of Ioannina. In OMEP European Conference with title: “The Place of the Child in 21st Century Society”. Canterbury Christ Church University, England, pp: 162-196

Zelazo P. D., Müller U., Frye D., Marcovitch S. (2003). The development of executive function in early childhood. Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Dev. 68.

Zimmer, R. (2007). Kinetic Handbook - From theory to practice, (Scientific Editing: Κampas A.) Athens: Athlotypo.

Zimmer, R. (2007). Psychokinetic Handbook - Theory and Practice of Psychomotor Intervention, (Scientific Editing: Κampas A.) Athens: Athlotypo.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Charilaos K. Zaragkas, Vasiliki Pliogou

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).