Seyit Deniz Yilmaz


This study aimed to reveal the bidirectional crosslinguistic effect between L1 and L2 in description of motion event, which has been a basis of comparison of different types of languages for many decades since Talmy (1991; 2000) proposed his two-way typology of languages as v-framed and s-framed, and Slobin (1996) showed the relation between language and thought with thinking for speaking hypothesis. Turkish prospective language teachers of English described motion events in L1 and L2 in the present study. Boundary-crossing motion events were used as stimuli since this kind of motion event has been found to be eliciting the difference between language types more than other types of motion event. We have also looked for the language mode effect between spoken and written English because written language descriptions were found to be more similar with native speaker conceptualization patterns (Hohenstein et al., 2006; Isler, 2014). To add a new perspective to the current field, the frequent conceptualization patterns in these L2 descriptions were judged by the same participants and native speakers of English. In fact, it was purposed to find out the receptive knowledge of Turkish participants in addition to productive one and to what extent English native speakers find the most frequent patterns natural or intelligible.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



motion event, boundary-crossing path, crosslinguistic effect, conceptualization patterns, language transfer

Full Text:



Aksu-Koç, A. (1994). Development of linguistic forms: Turkish. In R. A. Berman & D. I. Slobin (Eds.). Relating events in narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study (pp. 329-388). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Berman, R., A. & Slobin, D., I. (1995). Relating events in narrative: A cross-linguistic developmental study. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum.

Brown, A. (2015). Universal development and L1–L2 convergence in bilingual construal of manner in speech and gesture in Mandarin, Japanese, and English. Modern Language Journal, 99, 66–82.

Brown, A., & Gullberg, M. (2010). Changes in encoding of path of motion after acquisition of a second language. Cognitive Linguistics, 21, 263–286.

Brown, A., & Gullberg, M. (2011). Bidirectional crosslinguistic influence in event conceptualization? Expressions of path among Japanese learners of English. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14, 79–94.

Brown, A., & Gullberg, M. (2013). L1–L2 convergence in clausal packaging in Japanese and English. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 477–494.

Bylund, E., & Athanasopoulos, P. (2015). Introduction: Cognition, motion events, and SLA. Modern Language Journal, 99, 1-13.

Cadierno, T. (2008). Motion events in Danish and Spanish: A focus on form pedagogical approach. In S. De Knop & T. De Rycker (Eds.). Cognitive approaches to pedagogical grammar: A volume in honour of Rene´ Dirven (pp. 259–294). Berlin: de Gruyter.

Cadierno, T. (2010). Motion in Danish as a second language: Does the learner’s L1 make a difference? In Z.–H. Han & T. Cadierno (Eds.). Linguistic relativity in second language acquisition: Thinking for speaking (pp. 1–33). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Cadierno, T., & Ruiz, L. (2006). Motion events in Spanish L2 acquisition. Annual Review of Cognitive Linguistics, 4, 183–216.

Choi, S-J., & Lantolf, J. P. (2008). The representation and embodiment of meaning in L2 communication: Motion events in speech and gesture in L2 Korean and L2 English speakers. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 30, 191-224.

Daller, M. H., Treffers-Daller, J., & Furman, R. (2011). Transfer of conceptualization patterns in bilinguals: The construal of motion events in Turkish and German. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14, pp 95-119.

Demirtaş, A. D. (2009). Motion Event Descriptions in English by Turkish EFL instructors (Unpublished master’s thesis). Anadolu University Institute of Educational Sciences, Eskişehir.

Filipović, L., & Vidaković, I. (2010). Typology in the L2 classroom: Second language acquisition from a typological perspective. In M. Pütz, L. Sicola (Eds.). Cognitive processing in second language acquisition: Inside the learner's mind (pp. 269-291). Amsterdam Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Hasko, V. (2009). The locus of difficulties in the acquisition of Russian verbs of motion by highly proficient learners. Slavic and Eastern European Journal, 53, 360–385.

Hendriks, H., & Hickmann, M. (2011). Expressing voluntary motion in a second language: English learners of French. In V. Cook & B. Bassetti (Eds.). Language and bilingual cognition (pp.315–339). New York: Psychology Press.

Hendriks, H., & Hickmann, M. (2015). Finding one’s path into another language: On the expression of boundary crossing by English learners of French. Modern Language Journal, 99, 14–31.

Hohenstein, J., Eisenberg, A., & Naigles, L. (2006). Is he floating across or crossing afloat? Cross-influence of L1 and L2 in Spanish–English bilingual adults. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9 (3), 249-261.

Ibarretxe-Antuñano, I. (2009). Path salience in motion events. In J. Guo, E. Lieven, N. Budwig, S. Ervin-Tripp, K. Nakamura, Şeyda Özçalışkan (Eds.). Crosslinguistic Approaches to the Psychology of Language: Research in the Tradition of Dan Isaac Slobin. (pp. 403-414). New York: Psychology Press.

Isler, Z., N. (2014). EFL learners’ use of path elements in motion event expressions: A study on Turkish university students. (Unpublished master’s thesis). The Graduate School of Social Sciences of Middle East Technical University, Ankara.

Jarvis, S., & Pavlenko, A. (2008). Crosslinguistic influence in language and cognition. New York and London: Routledge.

Jessen, M. (2014). The expression of path in L2 Danish by German and Turkish learners. Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics VIAL, 11, 81-110.

Larrañaga, P., Treffers-Daller, J., Tidball, F. and Gil Ortega, M. (2012). L1 transfer in the acquisition of manner and path in Spanish by native speakers of English. International Journal of Bilingualism, 16 (1). pp. 117-138.

Levelt, W. (1989). Speaking: From intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Li, P., Eskildsen, S. W., & Cadierno, T. (2014). Tracing an L2 learner's motion constructions over time: A usage-based classroom investigation. The Modern Language Journal, 98 (2). 612-628.

Navarro, S., & Nicoladis, E. (2005). Describing Motion Events in Adult L2 Spanish Narratives. In D. Eddington (Ed.), Selected Proceedings of the 6th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages (pp.102-107). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Negueruela, E., Lantolf, J. P., Jordan, S. R.,& Gelabert, J. (2004). The ‘private function’ of gesture in second language speaking activity: A study of motion verbs and gesturing in English and Spanish. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 14, 113–147.

Ozcaliskan, S. (2009). Learning to talk about spatial motion in language-specific ways. In J. Guo, E. Lieven, S. Ervin-Tripp, N. Budwig, K. Nakamura, & S. Ozcaliskan (Eds.).

Ozcaliskan, S. (2013). Ways of crossing a spatial boundary in typologically distinct languages. Applied Psycholinguistics, 36 (2), 485-508. DOI: 10.1017/S0142716413000325

Ozcalışkan, S. & Slobin, D. I. (2003). Codability effects on the expression of manner of motion in English and Turkish. In A. S. Özsoy, D. Akar, M. Nakipoglu-Demiralp, E. Erguvanlı-Taylan & A. Aksu-Koç (Eds.). Studies in Turkish Linguistics (pp. 259-270). Istanbul: Bogaziçi University Press.

Ozyurek, A. (2002). Speech-gesture relationship across languages and in second language learners: Implications for spatial thinking and speaking. In B. Skarabela, S. Fish, & A. H. Do (Eds.), Proceedings of the 26th annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 500-509). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Pavlenko, A. (2011). Thinking and speaking in two languages: Overview of the field. In Pavlenko (ed.), Thinking and speaking in two languages (p. 247). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Pavlenko, A., & Volynsky, M. (2015). Motion encoding in Russian and English: Moving beyond Talmy’s typology. Modern Language Journal, 99, 32–48.

Talmy, L. (1985). Lexicalization patterns: Semantic structure in lexical forms. In T. Shopen (Ed.). Language typology and lexical description: Vol. 3. Grammatical categories and the lexicon (pp. 36-149). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Talmy, L. (1991). Path to realization: A typology of event conflation. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: General Session and Parasession on the Grammar of Event Structure, 17, 480-519.

Talmy, L. (2000). Toward a cognitive semantics: Vol. II: Typology and process in concept structuring. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Romer, Ute, Matthew B. O'Donnell & Nick C. Ellis. 2014. Second language learner knowledge of verb-argument constructions: Effects of language transfer and typology. The Modern Language Journal, 98(4), 952-975.

Slobin, D. I. (2004). The many ways to search for a frog: Linguistic typology and the expression of motion events. In S. Strömqvist & L. Verhoeven (Eds.). Relating events in narrative (vol. 2): Typological and contextual perspectives (pp. 219–257). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Slobin, D. I., & Hoiting, N. (1994). Reference to movement in spoken and signed languages: Typological considerations. Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 20, 487-505.

Stam, G. (2015). Changes in thinking for speaking: A longitudinal case study. Modern Language Journal, 99, 83–99.

Yilmaz, S., D. (2018). Descriptions of Motions and Judgment of Different Conceptualization Patterns by English Non-native and Native Speakers. Journal of Foreign Language Education and Technology, 3(1), 48-82.

Ziyan, X. (2013). L1 influence on the use of English deictic motion verbs for Chinese EFL learners and French EFL learners. English Language Teaching, 6 (10), 219-227


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Seyit Deniz Yilmaz

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).