THE PREDICTORS OF SUCCESS IN A HIGH-STAKES TEST: CRAMSCHOOLS, TEST ANXIETY AND SELF-EFFICACY

Gulsah Basol, Esra Balgalmis

Abstract


The study's purpose was to determine the relative importance of a number of factors on achievement in a nationwide exam. Westside Exam Anxiety and Academic Self-Efficacy Beliefs Scales were used for data collection purposes. Participants were 143 K-8 students, selected through availability sampling in a city in the inner middle side of the Black Sea Region of Turkey. Fifty-six percent of the students had continued to a cram school for SBS and their latest practice test score and the actual SBS scores were collected from the cram school. The findings indicated that results of the hierarchical linear regression analyses were significant in all four steps. According to the findings, except self-efficacy, three significant predictors explained 60% of variation in SBS scores; the score obtained from the latest practice test was the most effective predictor of students' success in SBS.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


SBS prep courses, cram school, SBS, TEOG, test anxiety, self-efficacy, teaching to the test.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akom, G. V. (2010). Using formative assessment despite the constraints of high stakes testing and limited resources: A case study of chemistry teachers in Anglophone Cameroon. Unpublished dissertation thesis. Western Michigan University, Michigan, USA.

Anderson, L. H., & Midgley, C. (1997). Motivation and middle school students. In J. L. Irvin (Ed.), What current research says to the middle level practitioner (pp. 41-48). Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association.

Archbald, D., & Farley-Ripple, E. N. (2012). Predictors of placement in lower level versus higher level high school mathematics. High School Journal, 96(1), 33-51.

Au, W. (2007). High stakes testing and curricular control: A qualitative meta-synthesis. Educational Researcher, 36(5), 258-67.

Bandalos, D. L., Yates, K., & Thorndike-Christ, T. (1995). Effects of math self-concept, perceived self-efficacy, and attributions for failure and success on test anxiety. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 611-623.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Bandura, A. (2001). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.

Başol, G., Balgalmış, E., Karlı, M. G., & Öz, F. B. (2016). Content analysis of TEOG mathematics items based on MONE attainments, TIMSS levels, and reformed Bloom Taxonomy. International Journal of Human Sciences, 13(3), 5945-5965.

Basol, G., & Balgalmis, E. (2016). A multivariate investigation of gender differences in the number of practice tests and quizzes controlling for perceived self-regulation. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 388-397.

Basol, G., & Turkoglu, E. (2006). A content analysis study of KPSS Educational Sciences’ items according to the courses, topics and their place in the Bloom’s taxonomy [Abstract].The III. International Symposium on Programme and Proceedings Abstracts, 21, The III. International Teacher Training Symposium, Canakkale 18 Mart University, Canakkale, Turkey.

Basol, G., & Zabun, E. (2014). The predictors of success in Turkish High School Placement Exams: Exam prep courses, perfectionism, parental attitudes and test anxiety. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 14(1), 78-87.

Brophy, J. (1998). Motivating students to learn. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Cassady, C. J. (2004). The influence of cognitive test anxiety across the learning–testing cycle. Learning and Instruction, 14, 569-572.

Cassady, C. J., & Johnson. E. R. (2002). Cognitive test anxiety and academic performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27, 270-295.

Conneely, S., & Hughes, B. M. (2010). Test anxiety and sensitivity to social support among college students: effects on salivary cortisol. Cognitie, Creier, Comportament,14(4). Retrieved from http://www.readperiodicals.com/201012/2219821801.html

Cook, M. (2013). Expatriate parents and supplementary education in Japan: Survival strategy or acculturation strategy. Asia Pacific Education Review, 14(3), 403-417.

Driscoll, R. (2007). Westside test anxiety scale validation. ERIC Digest, ED495968.

De Castro, B. V., & de Guzman, A. B. (2014). From scratch to notch: Understanding private tutoring metamorphosis in the Philippines from the perspectives of cram school and formal school administrators. Education and Urban Society, 46(3), 287-311.

Eklöf, H., & Nyroos, M. (2013). Pupil perceptions of national tests in science: perceived importance, invested effort, and test anxiety. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(2), 497–510.

Fox, A. G., & Peters, M. L. (2013). First year teachers: Certification program and assigned subject on their self-efficacy. Current Issues in Education, 16(1), 1-16.

Guimaraes, J., & Sampaio, B. (2013). Family background and students' achievement on a university entrance exam in Brazil. Education Economics, 21(1), 38-59.

Hill, K. T., & Wigfield, A. (1984). Test anxiety: A major educational problem and what can be done about it. Elementary School Journal, 85, 105-126.

Hoferichter, F., Raufelder, D., & Eid, M. (2014).The mediating role of socio-motivational relationships in the interplay of perceived stress, neuroticism, and test anxiety among adolescent students. Psychology in the Schools, 51(7), 736-752.

Hoffman, L., & Nottis K. (2008). Middle school students ‘perceptions of effective motivation and preparation factors for high-stakes tests. National Association of Secondary School Principals, 92(3), 209-223.

Hurren, L., Rutledge, M., & Garvin, A. (2006). Team Testing for Individual Success. Phi Delta Kappan, 87, 443-447.

Kim, J., & Park, D. (2010). The determinants of demand for private tutoring in South Korea. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(3), 411-421.

Kumandas, H. & Kutlu, O. (2015). High-stakes tests [Yüksek risk içerensınavlar]. Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi (Journal of Educational Sciences Research), 5(2), 63-75. http://ebadjesr.com/

Lake, R., Bowen, M., Demeritt, A., McCullough, M., Haimson, J., & Gill, B. (2012). Learning from charter school management organizations: Strategies for student behavior and teacher coaching. Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. Princeton, NJ, ERIC: ED530801.

Lipowski, S. L., Pyc, M. A., Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (2014). Establishing and explaining the testing effect in free recall for young children. Developmental Psychology, 50(4), 994-1000.

Liu, J. (2012). Does Cram schooling matter? Who goes to cram schools? Evidence from Taiwan. International Journal of Educational Development, 32(1), 46-52.

Mısırlı-Tasdemir, Ö. (2003).The examination of relationship among problem solving skills and self-efficacy, locus of control, self-esteem, test anxiety, perfectionism in gifted children. Unpublished Master Thesis, Karadeniz Teknik University, Turkey.

Mkumbo, K. A. K., & Amani, J. (2012). Perceived university students’ attributions of their academic success and failure. Asian Social Science, 8(7), 247-255.

Nail, J. E., Christofferson, J., Ginsburg, G. S., Drake, K., Kendall, P. C., McCracken, J. T., & ... Sakolsky, D. (2015). Academic impairment and impact of treatments among youth with anxiety disorders. Child & Youth Care Forum, 44(3), 327-342.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Pajares, F. (1997). Current directions in self-efficacy research. In M. Maehr, & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.). Advances in Motivation and Achievement (Vol. 10, pp.1-49). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/

Putwain, D. (2007). Test anxiety in UK school children: Prevalence and demographic patterns. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(3), 579-593.

Putwain, D. W., Connors, L., Woods, K., & Nicholson, L. J. (2012). Stress and anxiety surrounding forthcoming Standard Assessment Tests in English schoolchildren. Pastoral Care in Education, 30(4), 289-302.

Putwain, D. W., Daly, A. L., Chamberlain, S., & Sadreddini, S. (2015). Academically buoyant students are less anxious about and perform better in high-stakes examinations. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(3), 247-263.

Roaser, R. V., Midgley, C., & Urdan, T. C. (1996). Perceptions of the school psychological environment and early adolescents' psychological and behavioral functioning in school: The mediating role of goals and belonging. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(3), 408-422.

Sarason, I. G., & Sarason, B. R. (1990). Test anxiety. In H. Leitenberg (Ed.), Handbook of social-evaluative anxiety (pp. 475-495). New York: Plenum.

Schunk, D. H. (2001). Social cognitive theory and self-regulated learning. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 125–151). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Schwartz, S. M., Evans, C., & Agur, A. M. (2015). Comparison of physical therapy anatomy performance and anxiety scores in timed and untimed practical tests. Anatomical Sciences Education, 8(6), 518-524.

Segool, N., Vonder Embse, N., Mata, A., & Gallant, J. (2014). Cognitive behavioral model of test anxiety in a high-stakes context: An exploratory study. School Mental Health,6, 50-61.

Shogren, K. A., Garnier-Villarreal, M., Dowsett, C., & Little, T. D. (2016). Exploring student, family, and school predictors of self-determination using NLTS2 data. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals, 39(1), 23-33.

Slavin, R. E. (2003). Educational psychology: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Spielberger, C. D., & Vag, P. R. (1995). Test anxiety: Theory, assessment, and treatment. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.

Sullivan, L. (2002). The effect of test anxiety on attention and memory skills in undergraduate students. Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate research at the College of Charleston, 1, 263-273.

Sung, Y., & Chao, T. (2015).Construction of the examination stress scale for adolescent students. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 48(1), 44-58.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics, 6th ed. Boston: Pearson.

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2012). Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results from PISA 2012 problem solving. Country Note, Turkey. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/keyfindings/PISA-2012-results-turkey.pdf

Totan, T., & Yavuz, Y. (2009). The reliability and validity study of the Turkish form of Westside test anxiety scale. Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Faculty of Education, 9(17), 95-109.

Transition System from Primary to Secondary Education (TEOG). (2015). Turkish national exam mathematics booklet A-Item 9. Retrieved from https://odsgm.meb.gov.tr/kurslar/UygulanmisSinavlar.aspx?sinavid=3

Trends in International Mathematics and Sciences Study (TIMMS). Retrieved from http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/about.html

von der Embse, N., & Hasson, R. (2012). Test anxiety and high-stakes test performance between school settings: Implications for educators. Preventing School Failure, 56(3), 180-187.

von der Embse, N. P., Schultz, B. K., & Draughn, J. D. (2015). Readying students to test: The influence of fear and efficacy appeals on anxiety and test performance. School Psychology International, 36(6), 620-637.

Weems, C. F., Scott, B. G., Taylor, L. K., Cannon, M. F., Romano, D. M., & Perry, A. M. (2013). A theoretical model of continuity in anxiety and links to academic achievement in disaster exposed school children. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 729-738.

Weiner, B. (1986). An Attributional Analysis of Achievement Motivation. Springer Verlag, New York.

Yusoff, M. Z. M., & Zin, N. A. M. (2013). Exploring suitable emotion-focused strategies in helping students to regulate their emotional state in a tutoring system: Malaysian case study. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 11(3), 717-742.

Zeidner, M. (1998). Test anxiety: The state of the art. New York: Plenum Press.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Gulsah Basol, Esra Balgalmis

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).