AN INVESTIGATION OF LEARNING APPROACHES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES: ARE THEY RELATED?

Tolga Erdogan, Emrah Ozdemir

Abstract


In related research, learning approaches and learning strategies have been reported as important variables influencing the quality of student learning. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the learning approaches and the language learning strategies of higher education students. The research was conducted with the participation of 493 freshmen (M=257, F=236) attending various departments at Balikesir University in Turkey. For research purposes, the Turkish versions of Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) and the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) were used. After the reliability of both instruments was computed, descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. The findings showed that students’ learning approaches were associated with their learning strategy use. The results provided further evidence that gender and field of study might have an impact on learning approach adoption and language learning strategy use. One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study was that engineering students had the highest total mean scores in deep and strategic approach and made use of learning strategies the most.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


learning approaches, language learning strategies, gender, grade level, field of study

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abraham, R. R., Kamath, A., Upadhya, S., & Ramnarayan, K. (2006). Learning approaches to physiology of undergraduates in an Indian medical school. Medical Education, 40(9), 916-923.

Alhaysony, M. (2017). Language learning strategies use by Saudi EFL students: The effect of duration of English language study and gender. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 7(1), 18-28.

Al-Natour, A. (2012). The most frequently used language learning strategies by Jordanian university students at Yarmouk University that affect EFL learning. European Journal of Social Sciences, 29(4), 528-536.

Andreou, E., Andreou, G., & Vlachos, F. (2004). Studying orientations and performance on verbal fluency tasks in a second language. Learning and Individual Differences, 15(1), 23–33.

Baeten, M., Kyndt, E., Struyven, K., & Dochy, F. (2010). Using student-centered learning environments to stimulate deep approaches to learning: Factors encouraging and discouraging their effectiveness. Educational Research Review, 5(3), 243-260.

Ballantine, J. A., Duff, A., & McCourt Larres, P. (2008). Accounting and business students’ approaches to learning: A longitudinal study. Journal of Accounting Education, 26(4), 188-201.

Biggs, J. B. (1987). Student approaches to learning and studying. Hawthorn: Australian Council for Educational Research.

Biggs, J. B., Kember, D., & Leung, D. Y. P. (2001). The revised two-factor study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F). British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(1), 133-149.

Booth, P., Luckett, P., & Mladenovic, R. (1999). The quality of learning in accounting education: the impact of approaches to learning on academic performance. Accounting Education, 8(4), 277-300.

Bremner, S. (1999). Language learning strategies and language proficiency: investigating the relationship in Hong Kong. Canadian Modern Language Review, 55(4), 490-514.

Byrne, M., Flood, B., & Willis, P. (2002). The relationship between learning approaches and learning outcomes: a study of Irish accounting students. Accounting Education, 11(1), 27-42.

Byrne, M., & Willis, P. (2008). An exploration of tertiary accounting students' prior approaches to learning accounting. International Journal of Management Education, 7(3), 35-46.

Cesur, O., & Fer, S. (2007). What is the validity and reliability study of the strategic inventory of language learning? Yuzuncu Yil University Education Faculty Journal, 4(2), 49-74.

Chang, C. H. (2012). EFL learning strategy use of Taiwanese university EFL learners. Cultivators’ Forum: English Language and Literature, 1, 1-23.

Chang, C. H., & Liu, H. J. (2013). Language learning strategy use and language learning motivation of Taiwainese EFL university students. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 10(2), 196–209.

Chang, S. J. (1991). A study of language learning behaviors of Chinese students at the University of Georgia and the relation of those behaviors to oral proficiency and other factors (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Georgia.

Diseth, Ǻ.(2011). Self-efficacy, goal orientations and learning strategies as mediators between preceding and subsequent academic achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(2), 191-195.

Diseth, Ǻ, Pallesen, S., Brunborg, G. S., & Larsen, S. (2010). Academic achievement among first semester undergraduate psychology students: the role of course experience, effort, motives and learning strategies. Higher Education, 59(3), 335-352.

Dreyer, C., & Oxford, R. L. (1996). Learning strategies and other predictions of ESL proficiency among Afrikaans speakers in South Africa. In Rebecca L. Oxford (Ed.), Language learning strategies around the world: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 61-74). Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Second Language and Curriculum Center.

Duff, A. (2002). Approaches to learning: Factor invariance across gender. Personality and individual differences, 33(6), 997-1010.

Edmunds, R., & Richardson, J. T. E. (2009). Conceptions of learning, approaches to studying and personal development in UK higher education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(2), 295–309.

Ekinci, N. (2009). Learning approaches of university students. Education and Science, 34(151), 74-88.

Enwistle, N. J., & Peterson, E. R. (2004). Conception of learning and knowledge in higher education: Relationships with study behavior and influences of learning environments. International Journal of Educational Research, 41(6), 407-428.

Entwistle, N. J., & Ramsden, P. (1983). Understanding student learning. London: Croom Helm.

Gijbels, D., & Dochy, F. (2006). Students' assessment preferences and approaches to learning: Can formative assessment make a difference? Educational Studies, 32(4), 401-411.

Goh, C., & Foong, K. P. (1997). Chinese ESL students' learning strategies: A look at frequency, proficiency and gender. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2(1), 39-53.

Gordon, C., & Debus, R. (2002). Developing deep learning approaches and personal teaching efficacy within a preservice teacher education context. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(4), 483–511.

Grainger, P. (2012). The impact of cultural background on the choice of language learning strategies in the JFL context. System, 40(4), 483-493.

Griffiths, C. (2003). Patterns of language learning strategy use. System, 31(3), 367-383.

Hayes, K., & Richardson, J. T. E. (1995). Gender, subject and context as determinants of approaches to studying in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 20(2), 215-221.

Heikkilä, A., & Lonka, K. (2006). Studying in higher education: students' approaches to learning, self-regulation, and cognitive strategies. Studies in Higher Education, 31(1), 99-117.

Hong-Nam, K., & Leavell, A. G. (2006). Language learning strategy use of ESL students in an intensive English learning context. System, 34(3), 399-415.

Karaduman, G. B., Güder, N., Özsoy-Güneş, Z., & Kırbaşlar, F. G. (2015). Investigation of the relationship between study approaches and self-regulated learning skills of teacher candidates. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 251 – 258.

Kember, D. Jamieson, Q. W. Pomfret, M., & Wong, E. T. T. (1995). Learning approaches, study time and academic performance. Higher education, 29, 329-343.

Kember, D., Leung, D. Y. P., & McNaught, C. (2008). A workshop activity to demonstrate that approaches to learning are influenced by the teaching and learning environment. Active Learning in Higher Education, 9(1), 43–56.

King, R. B., F. A. Ganotice Jr., & Watkins, D. A. (2014). A cross-cultural analysis of achievement and social goals among Chinese and Filipino students. Social Psychology Education, 17, 439-455.

Laird, T. F. N., Shoup, R. Kuh, G. D., & Schwarz, M. J. (2008). The effects of discipline on deep approaches to student learning and college outcomes. Research in Higher Education, 49(6), 469-494.

Lake, W., & Boyd. W. (2015). Age, maturity and gender, and the propensity towards surface and deep learning approaches amongst university students. Creative Education, 6(22), 2361-2371.

Lake, W., Boyd, W., & Boyd, W. (2015). The propensity of a science-based discipline towards surface learning compared to the arts—a fresh look at two cultures. Creative Education, 6(16), 1733-1741.

Lan, R., & Oxford, R. L. (2003). Language learning strategy profiles of elementary school students in Taiwan. IRAL, 41(4), 339-379.

Liu, D. (2004). EFL proficiency, gender and language learning strategy use among a group of Chinese technological institute English majors. Annual Review of Education, Communication and Language Sciences,

http://www.ecls.ncl.ac.uk. Accessed 15 November 2017.

Lou, Y. P. (1998). English language learning strategies of junior college students in Taiwan. Studies in English Language and Literature, 3, 43-60.

Martin, W. E., & Bridgmon, K. D. (2012). Quantitative and statistical research methods: From hypothesis to results. Somerset, NJ: Wiley.

Marton, F. (1976). On non-verbatim learning: II. The erosion of a task induced learning algorithm. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 17(1), 41-48.

Marton, F., & Säljö, R. (1976). On qualitative differences in learning. I – outcome and process. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46(1), 4-11.

Mogre, V., & Amalba, A. (2015). Approaches to learning among Ghanaian students following a PBL-based medical curriculum. Education in Medicine Journal, 7(1), 38-44.

Montaño, J. L. A., González, J. M. G., Hassall, T., Joyce, J., Germanou, E., & Asonitou, S. (2010). The approaches to learning of European accounting students. EuroMed Journal of Business, 5(3), 345-362.

Nacera, A. (2010). Languages learning strategies and the vocabulary size. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 4021-4025.

Newble, D. I., & Entwistle, N. J. (1986). Learning styles and approaches: implications for medical education. Medical Education, 20(3), 162-175.

Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle and Heinle Publishers.

Oxford, R., & Burry-Stock, J. A. (1995). Assessing the use of language learning strategies worldwide with the ESL/EFL version of the strategy inventory for language learning. System, 23(1), 1-23.

Pang, M., Ho, T. M., & Man, R. (2009). Learning approaches and outcome-based teaching and learning: a case study in Hong Kong, China. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 20(2), 106-122.

Peacock, M., & Ho, B. (2003). Student language learning strategies across eight disciplines. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 13(2), 179-200.

Peng, I. N. (2001). EFL motivation and strategy use among Taiwanese senior high school

Learners (Unpublished master’s dissertation). National Taiwan Normal University.

Poole, A. (2005). Gender differences in reading strategy use among ESL college students. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 36(1), 7-20.

Ramsden, P. (1979). Student learning and perceptions of the academic environment. Higher Education, 8(4), 411–427.

Richardson, J. T. E. (1993). Gender differences in responses to the approaches to studying inventory. Studies in Higher Education, 18(1), 3-13.

Rubin, J. (1975). What the good language learner can teach us? TESOL Quarterly, 9(1), 41-51.

Ryan, M. T., Irwin, J. A., Bannon, F. J., Mulholland, C. W., & Baird, A. W. (2004). Structuring future development observations of veterinary medicine students’ approaches to study in pre-clinical years. European Veterinary Education, 31(3), 242-254.

Scouller, K. (1998). The influence of assessment method on students' learning approaches: Multiple choice question examination versus assignment essay. Higher Education, 35, 453-472.

Senemoglu, N. (2011). College of education students’ approaches to learning and study skills. Education and Science, 36(160), 65-80.

Shmais, W. A. (2003). Language learning strategy use in Palestine. TESL-EJ, 7(2), 1–17.

Smith, S. N., & Miller, R. J. (2005). Learning Approaches: Examination type, discipline of study, and gender. Educational Psychology, 25(1), 43-53.

Szoke, E., & Sheorey, R. (2002). A comparative study of the learning strategies of Hungarian and Russian college students. novELTy, 9(3), 23-36.

Tait, H., Entwistle, N. J, & McCune, V. (1998). ASSIST: A re-conceptualization of the Approaches to Studying Inventory. In C. Rust (Ed.), Improving Students as Learners (pp. 262-271). Oxford: Oxford Brooks University.

Teixeira, C. Gomes, D., & Borges, J. (2013). The approaches to studying of Portuguese students of introductory accounting. Accounting Education: An International Journal, 22(2), 193-210.

Tercanlioglu, L. (2004). Exploring gender effect on adult foreign language learning strategies. Issues in Educational Research, 14(2), 181-193.

Teoh, H. C., Abdullah, M. C., Roslan, S., & Daud, S. M. (2014). Assessing students approaches to learning using a matrix framework in a Malaysian public university. SpringerPlus, 3(54), 1-11.

Ullah, R., Richardson, J. T. E., & Hafeez, M. (2013). Variations in perceptions of the learning environment and approaches to studying among university students in Pakistan. Prospects, 43(2), 165-186.

Veloo, A., Krishnasamy, H. N., & Harun, H. M. (2015). What are the learning approaches applied by undergraduate students in English process writing based on gender? International Education Studies, 8(6), 46-55.

Vermunt, J. D. (2005). Relations between student learning patterns and personal and contextual factors and academic performance. Higher Education, 49(3), 205–234.

Watkins, D., & Regmi, M. (1990). An investigation of the approach to learning of Nepalese tertiary students. Higher Education, 20(4), 459–469.

Wharton, G. (2000). Language learning strategy use of bilingual foreign language learners in Singapore. Language Learning, 50(2), 203-243.

Wong, L. L. C., & Nunan, D. (2011). The learning styles and strategies of effective language learners. System, 39(2), 144-163.

Xie, Q., & Zhang, L. (2015). Demographic factors, personality, and ability as predictors of learning approaches. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 24(4), 569-577.

Yalçın, E. (2003). An analysis of the relationship between the use of grammar learning strategies and student achievement at English preparatory school at the University of Gaziantep (A case study of the Gaziantep University). (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Gaziantep: Gaziantep University.

Yılmaz, C. (2010). The relationship between language learning strategies, gender, proficiency and self-efficacy beliefs: a study of ELT learners in Turkey. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 682-687.

Zare-ee, A. (2010). Associations between university students’ beliefs and their learning strategy use. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 882-886.

Zeegers, P. (2001). Approaches to learning in science: A longitudinal study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(1), 115-132.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Tolga Erdogan, Emrah Ozdemir

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).