Alexandros Georgopoulos, Constantinos Vouyoukas


Non-Directive Intervention (NDI) is an experiential method of group facilitation, founded by Michel Lobrot. According to this method, the group facilitators intervene in a non-directive way. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of the NDI on the personal growth, general self-efficacy and self-esteem of pre-service preschool teachers. Ninety-three undergraduate students participated in the research. Results of the present research work showed that students’ personal growth, general self-efficacy and self-esteem were enhanced at the end of the sessions. Results are discussed within the NDI experiential learning framework.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



experiential education, non-directive intervention, tertiary education, teacher education, self-efficacy, self-esteem, personal growth

Full Text:



Almaz, M. K. C., & Makino, S. (2010). Are we making the right choice to go for international exchange programs? Journal of International Business Education, 5, 145-160.

Anderson, L.W., Krathwohl, D.R., Airasian, P.W., Cruikshank, K.A., Mayer, R.E., Pintrich, P.R., Raths, J., & Wittrock, M.C. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.

Bakirtzis, K. (2002). Communication and education. Athens: Gutenberg (in Greek).

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Freeman: New York.

Behr, T., & Temmen, K. (2012). Teaching experience improving teacher education with experiental learning. International Journal on New Trends in Education and their Implications, 3, 60-73.

Beijaard, D., Meijer, P., C., & Verloop, N. (2004). Reconsidering research on teachers’ professional identity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 19, 277-290. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2003.07.001

Benne, K. D. (1976). The processes of re-education: An assessment of Kurt Lewin's views. Group & Organization Studies, 1, 26-43. doi: 10.1177/105960117600100104

Birkeland, M. S., Breivik, K., & Wold, B. (2014). Peer acceptance protects global self-esteem from negative effects of low closeness to parents during adolescence and early adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43, 70-80. doi: 10.1007/s10964-013-9929-1

Bradford, L. P. (1976). The laboratory method: A historical perspective. Group & Organization Studies, 1, 415-429. doi: 10.1177/105960117600100404

Carver, R. (1996). Theory for practice: a framework for thinking about experiential education. The Journal of Experiential Education, 19, 8-13. doi: 10.1177/105382599601900102

Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 77, 113-143. doi: 10.3102/003465430298563

Cruz, B. C., & Patterson, J. (2005). Crosscultural simulations in teacher education: developing empathy and understanding. Multicultural Perspectives, 7, 40-47. doi: 10.1207/s15327892mcp0702_7

Dewey, J. (1938/1998). Experience and education. West Lafayette, Indiana: Kappa Delta Pi.

Farell, A. (2005). Globalising early childhood teacher education: a study of student life histories and course experience in teacher education. International Journal of Early Childhood, 37, 9-17.

Figl, K. (2008). Developing team competence of computer science students in person centered technology-enhanced courses. Unpublished PhD thesis. Universität Wien: Wien.

Fourcade, F., & Go, N. (2012). Towards a new paradigm in experiential learning: Lessons learned from kindergarten. The Journal of Management Development, 31, 198-208. doi: 10.1108/02621711211208835

Galanou, C., Galanakis, M., Alexopoulos, E, & Darviru, C. (2014). Rosenberg self-esteem scale Greek validation on student sample. Psychology, 5, 819-827. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.58093

George, M. P. (2015). Experiential learning to enhance work skills, empathy and entrepreneurship in business schools. Journal of Contemporary Research in Management, 10, 1-15.

Gerstein, L. H., & Moeschberger, S. L. (2003). Building cultures of peace: An urgent task for counseling professionals. Journal of Counseling and Development, 81, 115-119. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2003.tb00233.x

Girvan, C., Conneely, C., & Tangney, B. (2016). Extending experiental learning in teacher professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 58, 129-139. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2016.04.009

Glynou, E, Schwarzer, R, & Jerusalem, M (1994). Greek adaptation of general self-efficacy scale.

Hattingh, A., & de Kock, D.M. (2008). Perceptions of teacher roles in an experience-rich teacher education program. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45, 321-332. doi: 10.1080/14703290802377216

Hewitt, J. P. (2009). The social construction of self-esteem. In S. J. Lopez, & C. R. Snyder (Eds), The Oxford handbook of positive psychology (2nd edition) (pp. 217-224). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Higgins, P. (2009). Into the big wide world: Sustainable experiential education for the 21st century. The Journal of Experiential Education, 32, 44-60. doi:.10.1177/105382590903200105

Hoban, G. (1999). Using a reflective framework for experiential education in teacher education classes. The Journal of Experiential Education, 22, 104-111. doi: 10.1177/105382599902200208

Ives, B., & Obenchain, K. (2006). Experiential education in the classroom and academic outcomes: For those who want it all. The Journal of Experiential Education, 29, 61-77. doi: 10.1177/105382590602900106

Irving, J. A., & Williams, D. I. (1999). Personal growth and personal development: concepts clarified. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 27, 517-526. doi: 10.1080/03069889908256287

Jetten, J., Branscombe, N. R, Haslam, S. A, Haslam, C., Cruwys, T., et al. (2015) Correction: Having a lot of a good thing: multiple important group memberships as a source of self-esteem, PLOS ONE, 10, 1-29. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131035

Jiusto, S., & Dibiasio, D. (2006). Experiental learning environments: do they prepare our students to be self-directed, life-long learners? Journal of Engineering Education, 195, 95-204. doi: 10.1002/j.2168-9830.2006.tb00892.x

Knight, C. (2014). Students' attitudes towards and engagement in self-disclosure: implications for supervision. The Clinical Supervisor, 33, 163-181. doi: 10.1080/07325223.2014.981493

Kocaman, G., Dicle, A., & Ugur, A. (2009). A longitudinal analysis of the self-directed learning readiness level of nursing students enrolled in a problem-based curriculum. Journal of Nursing Education, 48, 286-90.

Kolb, D.A., Boyatzis,R., & Mainemelis, C. (2001). Experiential learning theory: previous research and new directions. In R. Sternberg, & L. Zhang (Eds.), Perspectives on cognitive learning, and thinking styles (pp. 228-247). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kolb, A., & Kolb, D. (2005). Learning styles and learning spaces: enhancing experiential learning in higher education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4, 193-212. doi: 10.5465/AMLE.2005.17268566

Lewin, K., Lippitt, R., & White, R.K. (1999/1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created ‘social climates’. In M. Gold (Ed.), The complete social scientist: a Kurt Lewin reader (pp. 227-250). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Lindsay, A., & Ewert, A. (1999). Learning at the edge: can experiental education contribute to educational reform? Journal of Experiental Education, 22, 12-19. doi: 10.1177/105382599902200103

Lobrot, M. (1974). L’ animation non-directive des groups. Paris: Payot.

Lobrot, M. (1989). L’ecoute du desir. Paris: Retz.

Lobrot, M. (2007). Vivre ensemble: L’ attitude non-directive intervenante. Paris: Auto-édition.

Mannix McNamara, P., Sharon, M., Didier, J., & Lynch, R. (2012) Pre-service teachers' experience of and attitudes to teaching SPHE in Ireland. Health Education, 112, 199-216. doi: 10.1108/09654281211217759

Martin, A. J., & Leberman, S. I. (2005). Personal learning or prescribed educational outcomes: a case study of the outward bound experience. Journal of Experiental Education, 28, 44-59. doi: 10.1177/105382590502800106

Martin, A. J., & Legg, S. (2002). Investigating the inward sounds of outward bound. Australian Journal of outdoor education, 6, 27-36.

Mehta, C., & Patel, R. (1996). SPSS Exact Tests 7.0 for Windows. Chicago: SPSS Inc.

Nkhoma, M., Sriratanaviriyakul, N., Hiep, P. C., & Lam, T. K. (2014). Examining the mediating role of learning engagement, learning process and learning experience on the learning outcomes through localized real case studies. Education & Training, 56, 287-302. doi:10.1108/ET-01-2013-0005

Park, S., Holloway, S. D., Arendtsz, A., Bempechat, J., & Li, J. (2012). What makes students engaged in learning? A time-use study of within- and between-individual predictors of emotional engagement in low-performing high schools. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 390-401. doi: 10.1007/s10964-011-9738-3

Peterson, J. J., DeAngelo, S., Mack, N., Thompson, C., Cooper, J., & Sesma, A. J. (2014). Communication, communication, communication. Growth through laboratory instruction. Innovative Higher Education, 39, 321-332. doi: 10.1007/S10755-013-9279-7.

Raffan, J. (1995). Experiental education and teacher education. Journal of Experiental Education, 18, 117-119. doi: 10.1177/105382599501800301

Robinson, T. (2013). Relationships that emerged through participation in year 9 experiental education program. Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 17, 54-64.

Rogers, C. R (1980). A way of being. Houghton Mifflin Company: New York.

Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person: A therapist`s view of psychotherapy. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.

Rogers, C. R. (1954). Psychotherapy and personality change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Savage, M. P., & Wehman, T. L. (2014). Assessing the impact of international experiental education on the critical thinking skills and academic performance of college students. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 7, 1-18.

Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). General self-efficacy scale. In, J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portofolio. causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Wison: England.

Snyders, G. (1975). Ou vont les pedagogies non-directives? Paris: PUF.

Southcott, J. (2004). Seeing the big picture: experiental education in tertiary music education. Journal of Experiental Education, 27, 1-14. doi: 10.1177/105382590402700102

Speer, P. W. (1999). Intrapersonal and interactional empowerment: implications for theory. Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 51-61. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6629(200001)28:1<51::AID-JCOP6>3.0.CO;2-6

Vanlaere, L., Coucke, T., & Gastmans, C. (2010). Experiential learning of empathy in a care-ethics lab. Nursing Ethics, 17, 325-36. doi: 10.1177/0969733010361440

Vasilopoulos, S., & Brouzos, A. (2012). A pilot person-centered group for university students: effects on social anxiety and self-esteem. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 9, 222-239.

Weis, W. L., Hanson, L., & Arnesen, D. W. (2009). The use of Training groups (T-Groups) in raising self and social awareness and enhancing emotionally intelligence. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 13, 83-103.

Wolfe, B. D., & Samdahl, D. M. (2005). Challenging assumptions: Examining fundamental beliefs that shape challenge course programming and research. The Journal of Experiential Education, 28, 25-43. doi: 10.1177/105382590502800105

Wong, M. C. S., Lau, T. C. M., & Lee, A. (2012). The impact of leadership program on self-esteem and self-efficacy in school: a randomized controlled trial. PLOS ONE, 7, 1-6. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052023

Yalom, I. (1995). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.

Young, M. R. (2010). The art and science of fostering engaged learning. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 14, 1-18.

Zimmerman, M. A., Israel, B.A., Schulz, A., & Checkoway, B. (1992). Further explorations in empowerment theory: An empirical analysis of psychological empowerment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 20, 707-727. doi: 10.1007/BF01312604



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Alexandros Georgopoulos, Constantinos Vouyoukas

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).