Betul İlter, Marilena Z. Leana-Taşcılar, Gaye Saltukoğlu


Perfectionism is one of the personality traits of gifted children. When this trait, which may have positive or negative effects on the individual, is incorrectly handled by the child, it can cause problems such as anxiety and stress. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of bibliotherapy on perfectionism levels in gifted children. A total of 64 gifted children in the 3rd and 4th years of primary school (that is, children aged 9-10) took part in the study. The scale used to measure their perfectionism levels was the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS) (Özbay & Mısırlı-Tasdemir, 2003), while the Reading Attitude Scale (RAS)(Ünal, 2006) was used to measure attitudes to reading. A random selection of 14 individuals whose scores were above the group average was identified for this study, in which the 2X2 experimental model was applied. Of these 14, 7 who had received high scores in RAS were placed in the experimental group, while another 7 of the same ages and genders were placed in the control group. When equivalence between the two groups had been obtained, the 7-session bibliotherapy-based training program was administered by the researcher to the experimental group. As a result of the study, it was found that the bibliotherapy training program thus applied reduced perfectionism levels to a significant degree. This reduction was found to be significant in terms of the following sub-scales of MPS: excessive concern over making mistakes, personal standards, doubting the quality of one’s actions and preference for order, and organization (but not in the dimension of parental criticism).


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



perfectionism, bibliotherapy technique, gifted children

Full Text:



Afolayan, J. A. (1992). Documetnary perspectiove of bibliotherapy in education. Reading Horizons, 33(2), 137-148.

Ak, S. (2014). Puldan,Taştan, Lahanadan. Istanbul: Can

Antony, M. M. , and Swinson, R. P. (2009). When perfect isn't good enough: strategies for coping with perfectionism. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.

Aracı, U. (2007). Sufi hikayelerinin kullanıldığı, bilişsel-davranışçı yaklaşımla bütünleştirilmiş bibliyoterapinin işlevsel olmayan düşünceler ve kendini gerçekleştirme üzerindeki etkisi. (MA), Ankara, Ankara.

Barrow, J. C. , and Moore, C. A. (1983). Group interventon with perfectionistic thinking. The Personel and Guidance Journal, 61(10), 612-615.

Betzalel, N. , and Shechtman, Z. (2010). Bibliotherapy treatment for chilren with adjustment difficuties: a comparison of affective and cognitive bibliotherapy. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 5(4), 426-439.

Bulut, S. (2010). Bibliyoterapi yönteminin okullarda psikolojik danışmanlar ve öğretmenler tarafından kullanılması. Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 9(34), 17-31.

Burns, D. D. (1980). The perfectionist script for self defeat. Psychology Today, 2(8), 34-51.

Catron, R. , and Wingebach, N. (1986). Devloping the potential of the gifted reader. Theory Into Practice, 25(2), 134-140.

Clark, B. (2002). Growing up the gifted. USA: New Jersey: Merill Prentice Hall Press.

Cleary, B. (2013). Ramona's World. USA: Harper Collins.

Clements, A. (2008). The Report Card. USA: Atheneum Books for Young Readers.

Colangelo, N. , and Davis, G. (2003). Handbook of gifted education (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Cook, L. C. (2012). The influence of parent factors on child perfectionism: a cross-sectional study. (PhD), university of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA.

Cornett, C. E. , and Cornett, C. F. (1980). Bibliotherapy, the right book at the riht time. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Febbraro, G. A. R. (2005). An investigation into effectiveness of bibliotherapy and minimal contact interventions in the treatment of panic attacks. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(6), 763-779.

Fisak, B. , and Grills-Taqechel, A. E. (2007). Parental modeling, reinforcement, and information transger: risk factors in the development of child anxiety. Clinical Child and Family Psychology, 10(3), 213-231.

Floyd, M. (2003). Bibliotherapy as an adjunct to psychotherapy for depression in older adults. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59(2), 187-195.

Forgan, J. W. , and Gonzales-DeHass, A. R. (2004). How to infuse social skills training into literacy instruction. Teaching Exceptional Children, 36(6), 24-30.

Frasier, M. M. , and McCannon, C. (1981). Using bibliotherapy with gifted childre. Gifted Child Quarterly, 25(81), 81-85.

Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C. , and Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimentional of perfectionism. The Cognitive Therapy And Research, 14(5), 449-468.

Gençtan, E. (2006). Psikanaliz ve Sonrası. Istanbul: Metis.

Güneş, E. (2013). Both my mother and my father were the most successful students in their schools. Izmir: Tudem.

Hamachek, D. E. (1978). Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism. Psychology, 15, 27-33.

Heath, M. A., Sheen, D., Leavy, D., Young, E. , and Money, K. (2005). Bibliotherapy: a resource to facilitate emotional healing and growth. School Pychology, 26(5), 563-580.

Hebert, T. (1991). Meeting the affective needs of bright boys through bibliotherapy. Roeper Review, 13(4), 207-212.

Hebert, T. , and Kent, R. (2000). Nurturing social and emotional development in gifted teenagers through young adult literature. Roeper Review, 22(3), 167-171.

Hollander, M. H. (1965). Perfectionism. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 6(2), 94-103.

Hollingworth, L. S. (1926). Gifted children: their nature and nurture. NY: Macmillan.

Honig, A. S. (2009). Understanding and working with non-compliant and aggressive young children. Early Child Development and Care, 179(8), 1007-1023.

Jeon, K. W. (1992). Bibliotherapy for gifted children. Gifted Child Today, 16(6), 16-19.

Johnson, A. D. (1984). The Value of Creativity - The Story of Thomas Edison (The Valuetales) USA: Value Communications.

Jones, C. B. (2006). Creative dramatic: a way to modify aggressive behavior. Early Child Development and Care, 73(1), 43-52.

Kağan, S. (2006). Bilişsel Davranışçı Terapiye Dayalı Mükemmeliyetçilik Eğitiminin Sporcuların Mükemmeliyetçilik, Başarı Güdüsü ve Başarısızlık Korkusuna Etkisi. (PhD), Ankara, Ankara.

Kanlı, E. (2011). Investigating the relationships between perfectionism, depression and anxiety in gifted and normal adolescents. M.Ü. Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 33, 103-121.

Kearns, H., Forbes, A. , and Gardiner, M. (2007). A cognitive behavioral coaching intervention for the treatment of perfectionism and self-handicapping in a nonclinical population. Behavioral Change, 24(3), 157-172.

Kline, B. , and Short, E. (1991). Changes in emotional resilience: gifted adolescents females. Roeper Review, 13(3), 118-121.

Kutlesa, N. , and Arthur, N. (2008). Overcoming negative aspects of perfectionism through group treatment. Journal of Rational Emotional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, 26(3), 134-150.

Leana-Taşcılar, M. Z. (2012). Üstün zekalı ve yetenekli öğrencilerin de bulunduğu sınıflarda bibiliyoterapi kullanımı. Türk Üstün Zeka ve Eğitim Dergisi, 2(2), 118-136.

LoCicero, F. , and Ashby, J. S. (2000). Multidemensional perfectionism in middle school age gifted students: a comparison to peers from the general cohort. Roeper Review, 22(3), 182-185.

McCulliss, D. (2012). Bibliotherapy: historical and research perspectives. Journal of Poetry Therapy, 25(1), 23-38.

Mofield, E. L. , and Chakraborti-Ghosh, S. (2010). Addressing multidimensional perfectionism in gifted adolescents with affective curriculum. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 33(4), 479-513.

Neumeister, S. (2004). Factors influencing the development of perfectionism in gifted college students. Gift Child Q, 48(4), 259-274.

Noreau, E. L. , and Masse, A. (2015). Eliza is afraid of being unsuccessful. İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları.

Nugent , S. A. (2000). Perfectionism: Its manifestations and classroom-based interventions. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 11(4), 215-222.

Öner, U. (1987). Bibliotherapy. A.Ü. Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 20, 1-2.

Özbay, Y. , and Mısırlı-Tasdemir, Ö. (2003). Çok boyutlu mükemmeliyetçilik ölçeği: geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Paper presented at the VII. Ulusal Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Kongresi, İnönü Üniversitesi, Malatya.

Pardeck, J. T. (1993). Literature and adoptive children with disabilities. Early Child Development and Care, 91(1), 33-39.

Pardeck, J. T. (1994). Using literature to help adolescents cope with problems. Adolescence, 19(114), 421-427.

Pardeck, J. T. (1995). Bibliotherapy: an innovative approach for helping children. Early Child Development and Care, 11(1), 83-88.

Pardeck, J. T. , and Pardeck, J. A. (1984). Treating abused children through bibliotherapy. Early Child Development and Care, 16(3), 195-203.

Parker, W. D. (2000). Healthe perfectionism in the gifted. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 11(4), 173-182.

Parker, W. D. , and Mills, C. J. (1996). The incidence of perfectionist in giftedstudents. National Association for Gifted, 40(4), 194-200.

Pett, M. , and Rubinstein, G. (2013). The Girl Who Never Made Mistakes. USA: Sourcebooks Jabberwocky.

Reis, S. M., Gubbins, E. F., Briggs, C. J., Rischards, S., Jacobs, J. K., Eckert, R. D., . . . Schreiber, F. J. (2004). Reading instruction for taleted readers: case studies documenting few opportunities for continuous progress. Gifted Child Quarterly, 48(4), 315-339.

Riordan, R. R. , and Wilson, L. S. (1989). Bibliotherapy does it work. Journal of Counseling and Development, 67(9), 506-508.

Roedell, W. C. (1984). Vulnerabilities of highly gifted children. Roeper Review, 6(3), 127-130.

Savaşır, I. , and Şahin, N. (1995). Wechsler çocuklar için zeka ölçeği. Ankara: Türk Psikologlar Derneği.

Schuler, P. A. (2000). Perfectionism and gifted adolescents. The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 11(4), 183-196. doi:

Siegle, D. , and Schuler, P. A. (2000). Perfectionism differences in gifted middle school students. Roeper Review, 23(1), 39-44.

Silverman, L. K. (1993). Counseling the gifted and talented. Denver, CO: Love Publishers.

Silverman, L. K. (2007). Perfectionism: the crubicle of giftedness. Gifted Education International, 23(3), 233-245.

Şirin, A. B. (2011). Mükemmeliyetçilikle ilgili psikoeğitim programının ilköğretim 8. sınıf öğrencilerinin mükemmeliyetçilik düzeyleri ve akademik başarılarına etkisi. (MA), Ankara, Ankara.

Sisk, D. (2005). Psychosocial development of the gifted: implications for a counseling intervenion for gifted sutdents. Gifted Education International, 19(3), 213-225.

Slaney, R. B. , and Ashby, J. S. (1996). Perfectionists: study of a criterion group. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74(4), 393-398.

Spear, T. (1996). The effect of bibliotherapy on the self-esteem of the gifted child. (MA), Northeast Missouri State University, Missouri.

Stamps, L. S. (2003). Bibliotherapy: how books can help students cope with concerns and conflicts. The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 70(1), 25-29.

Tofaha, J. A. (2012). The effect of bibliotherapy intervention program on self-esteem of gifted primary school children. International Journal of Psycho-Educatiınal Sciences, 1(1), 73-83.

Uçar, Ö. (1996). Orta öğretim rehberlik hizmetlerinde edebiyat eserlerindne yararlanma. (MA), Ankara, Ankara.

Ünal, E. (2006). İlköğretim Öğrencilerinin Eleştirel Okuma Becerileri ile Okuduğunu Anlama ve Okumaya İlişkin Tutumları Arasındaki İlişki. (MA), Osmangazi Eskişehir.

Weber, D. R. (1998). The influence of bibliotherapy on gender-role attitudes of gifted female adolescents enrolled in a magnet program for the gifted. Humanities and Social Sciences, 603(705), 4019-4209.

Weber, D. R. , and Cavanaugh, T. W. (2006). Promting reading: using ebooks with gifted and advanced readers. Gifted Child Today, 29(4), 56-63.

Wechsler, D. (1949). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. San Antonia, TX, US: Psychological Corporation.

Yeşilyaprak, B. (2009). Bibliyoterapi: okuma ile sağaltım. Retrieved 03.12., 2015, from


Zousel, M. L., Rule, A. C. , and Logan, S. R. (2013). Teaching primary grade students perfectionism through cartoons compared to bibliotherapy. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 5(2), 199-218.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Betul İlter, Marilena Z. Leana-Taşcılar, Gaye Saltukoğlu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2022. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).