Saagyum P. Dare, Olivia Asante


The study examined the relationship between fathers’ involvement and girls’ characteristics. A sample of 106 families was engaged in the study consisting of 212 participants; 106 fathers and children. Self-reported data collected by questionnaires were used to examine the relationship between fathers’ involvement and girls’ characteristics. The study showed that the temperament of girls and schools they attended profoundly influenced fathers’ engagement, interaction, and involvement in their daughters. It also illustrated that within the temperament characteristics of girls, child surgency and effortful control affected how fathers managed their engagement, interaction, and involvement with their daughters amidst the temperament characteristics. It was however recommended that parental education programs should be established to sensitize fathers on fathers’ involvement hindrances and solutions and that child temperament characteristics should be carefully considered in all dealings with children among fathers.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



fathers, girls, involvement

Full Text:



Ahadi, S. A., Rothbart, M. K., & Ye, R. M. (1993). Children’s temperament in the U.S. and China: Similarities and differences. European Journal of Personality, 7, 359–377.

Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 55, 83– 96.

Belsky, J., Youngblade, L., Rovine, M., & Volling, B. (1991). Patterns of marital change and parent-child interaction. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 487 – 498.

Buur, H., Mangelsdorf, S. C., Friedman, J., & Frosch, C. A. (1999). A contextual approach to studying temperament: Child behavior with mothers versus fathers. Child Development, Albuquerque, NM.

Campbell, S. (1979). Mother-infant interaction as a function of maternal ratings of temperament. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 10, 67–76.

Clark, L. A., Kochanska, G., & Ready, R. (2000). Mothers’ personality and its interaction with child temperament as predictors of parenting behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 274–285.

Cummings, E. M., Davies, P. T., & Campbell, S. B. (2000). Developmental psychopathology and family process: Theory, research, and clinical implications. New York, NY: Guilford Press

Demos, J. (1982). The changing faces of fatherhood. In S. H. Cath, A. R. Gurwitt, & J. M. Ross (Eds.), Father and child: Developmental and clinical perspectives (pp. 425-445). Boston, MA: Little Brown.

DeLuccie, M. F., & Davis, A. J. (1991). Father-child relationships from the preschool years through midadolescence. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 152, 225–238.

Elizabeth M. P. & Julia M. B. (2016). Determinants of Father Involvement with Young Children: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort. Journal of Family Psychology, 1, 135–146.

Frodi, A. M., Lamb, M. E., Frodi, M., Hwang, C. P., Forsström, B., & Corry, T. (1982). Stability and change in parental attitudes following an infant’s birth into traditional and nontraditional Swedish families. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 23, 53–62.

Grimm-Thomas, K., & Perry-Jenkins, M. (1994). All in a day's work: Job experiences, self- esteem, and fathering in working-class families. Family Relations, 43: 174-181.

Griswold, R. L. (1995). Fatherhood in America: A history. New York: Basic Books.

Hughes, S. O., Shewchuk, R. M., Baskin, M. L., Nicklas, T. A., & Qu, H. (2008). Indulgent feeding style and children’s weight status in preschool. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 29, 403-410.

Kochanska, G., DeVet, K., Goldman, M., Murray, K., & Putnam, S. P. (1994). Maternal reports of conscience development and temperament in young children. Child Development, 65, 852–868.

Lamb, M. E. (Ed.) (1997b). The role of the father in child development (Third edition). New York: Wiley, 1997.

Lamb, M. E. (2000). The history of research on father involvement: An overview. Marriage and Family Review, 29, (2/3) 23-42.

Lamb, M. E. (2010). The role of the father in child development (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Levy, D. (1943). Maternal overprotection. New York: Columbia University Press.

Maccoby, E. E., Snow, M. E., & Jacklin, C. N. (1984). Children’s dispositions and mother- child interactions at 12 and 18 months: A short-term longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 20, 459–472.

Majdandžić, M., & Van den Boom, D. C. (2007). Multimethod longitudinal assessment of temperament in early childhood. Journal of Personality, 75, 121-168.

Mangelsdorf, S., Gunnar, M., Kestenbaum, R., Lang, S., & Andreas, D. (1990). Infant proneness-to-distress temperament, maternal personality, and mother-infant attachment: Associations and goodness of fit. Child Development, 61, 820–831.

Mangelsdorf, S. C., Schoppe, S. J., & Buur, H. (2000). The meaning of parental reports: A contextual approach to the study of temperament and behavioral problems in childhood. In V. J. Molfese & D. L. Molfese (Eds.), Temperament and personality development across the lifespan (pp. 121–140). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Manlove, E. E., & Vernon-Feagans, L. (2002). Caring for infant daughters and sons in dual- earner households: Maternal reports of father involvement in weekday time and tasks. Infant and Child Development, 11, 305–320.

Martin, R. P. (1988). The temperament assessment battery for children. Brandon, VT: Clinical Psychology.

Marsiglio, W. (1991). Male Procreative Consciousness and Responsibility: Journal of Family Issues, 12(3), 268–290. doi:10.1177/019251391012003002

Marsiglio, W., Amato, P., Day, R., & Lamb, M. E. (2000). Scholarship on fatherhood in the 1990s and beyond: Past impressions, future prospects. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 1173–1191.

McBride, B. A., & Mills, G. (1993). A comparison of mother and father involvement with their preschool age children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 8(4), 457–477. doi:10.1016/s0885-2006(05)80080-8

McBride, B. A., & Rane, T. R. (1997). Role identity, role investments, and paternal involvement: Implications for parenting programs for men. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12, 173–197.

McBride, B. A., & Rane, T. R. (1998). Parenting alliance as a predictor of father involvement: An exploratory study. Family Relations, 47, 229–236.

McBride, B. A., Schoppe, S. J., & Rane, T. R. (2002). Child characteristics, parenting stress, and parental involvement: Fathers versus mothers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 998– 1011. .1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00998.x

O’Connor, T. M., Hughes, S. O., Watson, K. B., Baranowski, T., Nicklas, T. A., Fisher, J. O., Beltran, A., Baranowski, J. C., Qu, H., & Shewchuk, R. M. (2010)Parenting practices are associated with fruit and vegetable consumption in pre-school children. Public Health Nutrition, 13, 91-101.

Palkovitz, R. (1984). Parental attitudes and father’s interactions with their 5-month-old infants. Developmental Psychology, 20, 1054–1060.

Perry-Jenkins, M., & Crouter, A. C. (1990). Men’s provider role attitudes: Implications for household work and marital satisfaction. Journal of Family Issues, 11, 136–156.

Pleck, J. H. (1981). The myth of masculinity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Pleck, J. H., & Hofferth, S. L. (2008). Mother involvement as an influence on father involvement with early adolescents. Fathering, 6, 267–286.

Pleck, E. H., & Pleck, J. H. (1997). Fatherhood ideals in the United States: Historical dimensions.

In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (3rd ed., pp. 33–48). New York: Wiley.

Putnam, S. P., & Rothbart, M. K. (2006). Development of short and very short forms of the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 102- 112.

Rothbart, M. K. (1981). Measurement of temperament in infancy. Child Development, 52, 569– 578.

Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., & Hershey, K. L. (1994). Temperament and social behavior in childhood. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 40, 21–39.

Rothbart, M.K., Ahadi, S.A., Hershey, K.L., & Fisher, P. (2001). Investigations of temperament at 3-7 years: The children's behavior questionnaire. Child Development, 72 (5), 1394-1408.

Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (1998). Temperament. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development. (5th ed., pp. 75–142). New York: Wiley.

Scarr, S., & McCartney, K. (1983). How people make their own environments: A theory of genotype-environment effects. Child Development, 54, 424–435.

Sleddens, E. F. C., Kremers, S. P. J., Candel, M. J. J. M., De Vries, N. K., & Thijs, C. (2011).

Validating the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire in Dutch children: psychometric properties and a cross-cultural comparison of factor structures. Psychological Assessment, 23, 417-426.

Strecker, E. (1946). Their mothers’ sons: The psychiatrist examines an American problem. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Ward, T. M., Gay, C., Alkon, A., Anders, T. F., & Lee, K. A. (2008). Nocturnal sleep and daytime nap behaviors in relation to salivary cortisol levels and temperament in preschool-age children attending child care. Biological Research for Nursing, 9, 244- 253.

Wylie, P. (1942). A generation of vipers. New York: Rinehart.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Saagyum P. Dare, Olivia Asante

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).