THE IMPLICATON OF HIGH–STAKES TESTING TO PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KENYA

F. Shivonje, S. L. Wasula

Abstract


High stakes testing involves attaching consequences (stakes) to test scores. This in education implies that the teacher and students will automatically be held accountable of their performance. Globally high stakes testing is the operational system because most states have resorted to standards which are only achievable with monitoring of education operations. The danger however could be the effects it might have on teaching and learning. This researcher set out to establish the context, form or nature of high stakes testing, what educators and even the student think about it. The research further determined the implications it has on teaching and the Kenya education process. In a nutshell, this study was to determine how high stakes testing affects what the teachers teach and how they teach. This research design was quantitative and qualitative, targeting teachers in both primary and secondary schools in the Kakamega district and also expose facto to establish the cause and effect of high–stakes testing from researches by the American Research Association (2002) and other relevant studies in the area of testing. The results were such that the teachers indicated that tests were used for accountability purposes causing them to teach to the test in the later classes. However, most teachers agreed that high-stakes tests were necessary to maintain standards. The students argued that there is need to review the global trends as well as nature of assessment in Kenya so that tests are not used as a mechanism in a single defined assessment and a consequence for pass and failure, it is time to tailor exams to contribute to performance towards socio-economic equitable and performance related conditions.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


high-stakes testing, primary schools, secondary schools, Kenya

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anita and Woolfolk (1980), Educational Psychology, Viacom Company, USA

Cronbach Lee J. (1954) Educational Psychology (second edition) Harcourt Brace & World Inc.

Don Zancarella (1992) The influence of state Mandated Testing in Teachers of Literature, American Education Research Association Education Evaluation and policy analysis, Vol 14 No3 (Antumn 1992) p.283-295

Eshiwani G.S. (1993) Education in Kenya since independence, EAEP, Nairobi

Farrat, J.S. (1964), principles and practice of education, Longman, Singapore

Gardner, J. (Ed.) (2006). Assessment and Learning, Sage Publication, London.

Gifford B. et al (1986) Test policy and Test performance: educational language and culture, Kluwer academic publishers, Boston.

Hauser Robert, M. et al, (2002) Educational Researcher Vol 29, No. 8 American Educational Research Association.

Heubert J.P (2002) High stakes testing: Opportunities and risks for students of colour English language learner and students with disabilities, National center on accessing the general curriculum.

John W. Santrick (2001) Educational psychology. Classrooms update preparing for praxis and

practice: McGraw Hill publishing company, New Delhi

Linderman, R.H., (1971). Education Assessment D.B. Taraporevala Sons and Co. private Ltd Bombay.

Luna C. et al (2001) the impact of the MCAs. Teachers talk about high-stakes testing. The English Journal vol. 91 No1. National Council of teachers of English.

Magoon Robert A (1972) An integration of psychology and educational practices Emeril publishing company, Columbia, Ohio.

McCraken and Nancy Mellin et al (2001) The English Journal Vol 91 No 1 Assessing ourselves to death, National Council of Teachers of English.

Melissa Roderick et al (Winter, 2002) Educational Evaluation and policy analysis Vol. 24 No4, American Educational Research Association.

Nzomo Juliana et al (2000) a Paper Copy Printed By International Institute for education planning, Paris.

Rosen Shine (2003, August 4) High–stakes testing: Another analysis education policy analysis archives (11)24,

Supon Viola (2008), High-stakes testing: strategies by teachers and principals for student success (report) Journal of Instructional psychology. Vol. 35, No. 3

Susan Capel et al (1999) learning to teach in the secondary school: A companion to school experience (2nd edition) Routledge London.

Wetchester Institute for human service research, Vol7, No1, April 2003

Widen Marrin E. et al (1997) High stakes testing and the teaching of science

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-stakes_testing


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 F. Shivonje, S. L. Wasula

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).