Wiwik Widajati, Punaji Setyosari, I Nyoman S. Degeng, S. Sumarmi


Self-efficacy plays an important role in facing and solving various problems in the era of modernization, especially social problems in real life every day. This study aims to determine the relationship between self-efficacy and the learning outcomes of solving social problems of middle school students. This research was conducted on Inclusive Middle School students in Surabaya Indonesia. The data collection instrument used was inventory self-efficacy consisting of 27 items with reliability values of 0.896, test and inventory social problem solving consisting of 45 items with reliability values of 0.926. Data analysis is using Pearson Product Moment. Based on the results of research data analysis with a significance level of 0.01, the correlation coefficient was 0.533, p = 0.000 <0.01 and at the 0.05 level of significance the correlation coefficient was 0.294, p = 0.016 <0.05. This means that there is a significant relationship between self-efficacy and learning outcomes in solving social problems in Inclusive Middle School students.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



self-efficacy, social problem solving

Full Text:



Afandi, Z., Degeng, I.N.S., Setyosari, P., Kamdi, W. 2015. Effect of Contextual Learning Strategies and Self-Efficacy on High School Students Learning Outcomes in History. Dissertation. Unpublished. Postgraduate, Malang State University.

Ainscow, M., Miles, S. 2008. Making Education for All inclusive: Where Next? Prospects, vol. 145, no. 1.

Aurah, Catherine. 2017. Investigating the Relationship between Science Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Gender, and Academic Achievement, among High School Students in Kenya. Journal of Education and Practice, v8 n8 p146-153 2017, Pages: 8.

Bandura, A. 1994. Self-Efficacy. Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81).

Bandura, A. 1999. Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective. Asian Journal of Social Psychology (1999) 2: 21-41.

Bedel, E.F. 2014. Exploring Academic Motivation, Academic Self-efficacy and Attitudes toward Pre-service Early Teaching in Childhood Education Teachers. Journal of Education and Training Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1, 142-149.

Betoret, F.D., Rosello, L.A. & Artiga, A.G. 2017. Self-Efficacy, Satisfaction, and Academic Achievement: The Mediator Role of Students' Expectancy-Value Beliefs. Front. Psychol, Multidisciplinary Psychology Journal,

Bishara, S., Hui, S.K.F. 2016. Creativity in Unique Problem-Solving in Mathematics and Its Influence on Motivation for Learning. Journal of Cogent Education, Volume 3, Issue 1

Boonen, A.J.H., Koning, B.B., Jolles, J., Schoot, M. 2016. Word Problem Solving in Contemporary Math Education: A Plea for Reading Comprehension Skills Training. Journal Frontiers Psychology 2016; 7: 191.

Caprioara, D. 2015. Problem Solving-Purpose and Means of Learning Mathematics in School. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 191, 2 June 2015, Pages 1859-1864.

Cassidy, S. 2015. Resilience Building in Students: The Role of Academic Self-Efficiency. Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 6, Article 1781.

Choate, Joyce, S. 2004. Successful Inclusive Teaching Proven Ways to Detect and Correct Special Needs. Happened. Helen Keller International, Usaid, Pearson Education, Inc.

Degeng, I.N.S. 2013. Learning Sciences: Classification of Variables for the Development of Theory and Research. Malang: Kalam Hidup.

Dou, R., Brewe, E., Potvin, G., Zwolak, J. P & Hazari, Z. 2018. Understanding the Development of Interest and Self-efficacy in Active-learning Undergraduate Physics Courses. International Journal of Science Education, Volume 40, Issue 13, Pages 1587-1605.

Erozkan, A. 2014. Analysis of Social Problem Solving and Social Self-Efficacy in Prospective Teachers. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, v.14 n.2, p 447-455.

Gkorezis, P., Kostagiolas, P., Niakas, D. 2017. Linking Exploration to Academic Performance: The Role of Information Seeking and Academic Self-efficacy. Library Management, Vol. 38 Issue: 8/9, pp.404-414.

Goulao, M.F. 2014. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement in Adults' Learners. Athens Journal of Education, Vol. 1, No. 3, 237.

Glu, Y.K. 2015. Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement, A Case From Turkey. Journal of Education and Practice, Vol. 6, No. 29.

Haase, J., Hoff, E.V., Hanel, P.H.P. & Ker, A.I. 2018. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Creative Self-Efficacy and Different Creativity Measurements. Creativity Research Journal, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-16.

Hemmings, B. & Kay, R. 2016. The Relationship between Research Self-efficacy, Research Disposition and Publication Output. Educational Psychology, An International Journal of Experimental, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 347-361.

Intaros, P., Inprasitha, M., Srisawadi, N. 2014. Students' Problem Solving Strategies in Problem Solving-mathematics Classroom. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 116, Pages 4119-4123.

Johnson, E.B. 2002. Contextual Teaching and Learning. California: Corwin Press Inc.

Kingsdorf, S., Krawec, J., Gritter, K. 2016. A Broad Look at the Literature on Math Word Problem-Solving Interventions for Third Graders. Journal Cogent Education, Volume 3, Issue 1.

Linsay, L.D. 2018. Problem Solving in the Early Years. Sage Journals, Intervention in School and Clinic, Vol. 53, Issue 4.

Mojtabaee H.S.M., Tahriri, A. & Danaye T.M. 2016. The Relationship between EFL Learners' Self-efficacy and Their Social-Affective Strategy Use Across Years of Study. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, Volume 5 Number 4, 27-39.

Rio, J.F., Cecchini, J.A., Gimenez, A.M., Alonso, D.M., Prieto, J.A. 2017. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure. Frontiers Psychology, Multidisciplinary Psychology Journal,

Rooij, E.C.M., Jansen, E.P.W. A. & Grift, WJCM 2017. Factors that contribute to the Secondary School of Student Self-Efficacy in Being a Successful University Student. Journal of Research in Post-Compulsory Education, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 535-555.

Sadi, O., Uyar, M. 2013. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy, Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Achievement: A Path Model. Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 12, Issue 1, Page 21-33.

Schunk, D. & Gunn, T.P. 2015. Self-Efficacy and Skill Development: Influence of Task Strategies and Attributions. The Journal of Educational Research, 79 (4): 238-244.

Setyosari, P. 2015. Educational and Development Research Methods, first print. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.

Setyosari, P. 2015. Metode Penelitian Pendidikan dan Pengembangan, cetakan pertama. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.

Suraya, W.H. & Yunus, J.N. 2017. Self-Efficacy and Academic Performance of Secondary Students Schools in Perak: An Exploratory Outlook for the International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, Vol. 6, No. 3.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Wiwik Widajati, Punaji Setyosari, I Nyoman S. Degeng, S. Sumarmi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).