Lombo S. Lombo


Curriculum integration usually should provide learners with an opportunity for a holistic acquisition of skills, knowledge and attitudes with no restrictions on subject boundaries and co-curriculum activities. This however may not be the same for Adult and Continuing Education (ACE) which focuses on meeting individual adult needs and integrating adult education in the regular secondary curriculum and may not be forthcoming. ACE is geared towards attaining Vision 2030 of developing the relevant human resource base in Kenya. However, adult learning has faced a myriad of challenges including inadequate instructional materials, inability to balance family and career and the varying perceptions of the instructors on curriculum integration. This paper informed by transformative learning theory sought to assess the perception of adult learner instructors on the integration of regular secondary school curriculum in adult education in Kenya. In order to achieve this objective, data was collected through classroom observations, curriculum review, and interviews with 9 current students, 3 former students, 5 teachers, and the Principal. The results of the study indicated that instructors followed the regular high school curriculum with little adaptation and lacked training about teaching adult learners and self-directed learning approaches. A professional development project for Baraka Adult Learning Center (BALC) instructors was developed to address some of the needs identified in the study. This training could have an impact on the adult learners by better assisting them to gain access to vocational training and higher education.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



adult learning, school dropouts, secondary school, curriculum, integration, instructors

Full Text:



Brown, T. (2009). Change by design. New York, NY: Harper Collins

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston: MA Pearson.

Glesne, C. (2011). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction (4th ed.). Boston: MA Pearson.

Goddu, K (2012). Meeting the challenge: Teaching strategies for adult learners. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 48(4): 169-173.

Julius, M. K., Bawane, J. (2011). Education and poverty, relationship and concerns. A case of Kenya. Problems of Education in the 21stCentury.

Knowles, M. (1980). The Modern Practice of Adult Education from Andragogy to Pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall/Cambridge.

Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research. A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA Jossey-Bass.

Mezirow, J. (2017). Transformative Learning Theory in Learning Theories, September 30, 2017, https://www

Mezirow, J. (2009). Transformative Learning Theory. In Mezirow and E.W. Taylor (Eds), Transformative Learning in Practice: Insight from Community.

Mezirow, J. (1997). Transformative Learning Theory to Practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 74: 5-12.

Smith, R. (2010). Total Parenting. Educational Theory.

Tolutiene, G., Domarkiene, J. (2010). Learning needs and the possibilities of their satisfaction: The case of prospective andragogues. Tiltai, 50(1): 147-158.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Lombo S. Lombo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2022. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).