MEDIA LITERACY IN THE 21ST CENTURY - INTERNATIONAL BASICS AND CITIZENSHIP PRACTICES

Nilüfer Pembecioğlu

Abstract


Media is becoming very strategic and dynamic as if it’s a different world. Taking its roots from the cultural and technological changes and demands, on one hand media is developing, making up new channels, concepts, fashions, designs and constructions reaching each and every individual in the world and on the other hand, it changes the lives of the people and societies, presenting the facts in a different way, concentrating on the attitudes and life styles and representing them partially, triggering the expectations. This partial or whole change of media finds new ways of producing materials, creating new presentation and representation styles, providing new products, making it all different from the past. Not only the content but also the context and channels are changing rapidly; thematic, individualized and a highly liquid media is flowing all around the world. However, all the change of media sounds nonsense if it cannot create a media literate and civic society. This study aims to question the media literacy providing media and citizenship examples that makes it possible as a civic practice. As in the new media age, the individuals and society seem to be more than ready to make sacrifices for concepts like democracy and citizenship. This type of new media and new media literacy types bring up the new intergenerational, interdependent and global citizenship issues covering each and every individual, providing them new identities and new independency areas. Thus new media is mostly interpreted as a tool of democracy and freedom implementing ways of the voicing the voiceless and increasing the choices, doubling the number of the media channels, changing rules of media ownership, changing the rules and opportunities of accessibility and providing multiple identities to the participants of this new and rich world. Thus, everyday people are now not only labeled as the audiences but also become a part of the public opinion, contributing to the media as the producers, managers, distributers, disseminating the information in hand, etc. However, it’s just time to think about the media literacy and different type of media literacies.

Medya, sanki farklı bir dünya gibi, çok stratejik ve dinamik bir hale geliyor. Köklerini kültürel ve teknolojik değişimlerden ve taleplerden alarak, bir yandan medya gelişiyor, yeni kanallar, kavramlar, modalar, tasarımlar ve dünyadaki her bireye ulaşan yapılar oluşturuyor ve diğer yandan ise gerçekleri farklı bir biçimde sunan, tutum ve yaşam tarzlarına odaklanan ve onları kısmen temsil eden, beklentileri tetikleyen şekilde bireylerin, toplumların hayatlarını değiştiriyor. Bu kısmi ya da genel medya değişimi, materyal üretmenin, yeni sunum ve sunum biçimlerini yaratmanın, yeni ürünler sunmanın, geçmişten farklı kılmanın yeni yollarını bulmakta. Yalnızca içerik değil, içerik ve kanallar ve mecra da hızla değişmekte; tüm dünyada tematik, bireyselleştirilmiş ve oldukça akışkan bir medya dolaşımda. Ancak, medya okuryazarlığı ve sivil toplum oluşturamadığında, medyanın tüm bu değişimi anlamsız olacak. Bu çalışma, medya okuryazarlığı ile sivil vatandaşlık uygulamalarını mümkün kılan vatandaşlık örnekleri sunan medya okuryazarlığını sorgulamayı amaçlamaktadır. Yeni medya çağında olmanın verdiği güçle, bireyler ve toplum, demokrasi ve vatandaşlık gibi kavramlar için fedakarlık yapmaya hazır görünüyor. Bu tür yeni medya ve yeni medya okuryazarlığı türleri, her bir bireyi kapsayan yeni nesiller arası, birbirine bağımlı ve küresel vatandaşlık konularını gündeme getirmekte ve onlara yeni kimlikler ve yeni bağımsızlık alanları sağlamaktadır. Bu nedenle yeni medya çoğunlukla, sesi olmayanların sesi olan ve seçimleri zenginleştiren, medya kanalı sayılarını arttıran, medya sahipliği kurallarını değiştiren, erişilebilirlik kurallarını ve olanaklarını değiştirebilen ve bu yeni ve zengin dünyanın katılımcılarına çoklu kimlikler sunabilen bir demokrasi ve özgürlük aracı olarak yorumlanmaktadır. Bu yüzden, günümüzde insanlar artık sadece izleyici kitlesi olarak etiketlenmiyor, medyaya yapımcılar, yöneticiler, dağıtıcılar olarak katkıda bulunup, ellerindeki bilgiyi dağıtıma sunarak aynı zamanda kamuoyunun bir parçası haline geliyorlar. Bununla birlikte, medya okuryazarlığı ve farklı medya okuryazarlıkları hakkında düşünmenin tam zamanı.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


literacy, media literacy, citizenship / okuryazarlık, medya okuryazarlığı, vatandaşlık

Full Text:

PDF

References


Antone, E. (2003). Culturally framing Aboriginal literacy and learning. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 27(1), 7.

Auerbach, E., & Said, E. W. (2013). Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature-New and Expanded Edition (Vol. 1). Princeton University Press.

Avgerinou, M. & Ericson, J. (1997). "A review of the concept of visual literacy", British Journal of Educational Technology, 28(4), 280-291.

Barthes, R., 1977, 'The Death of the Author' in Image-Music-Text, Fontana

Basu, K., & Foster, J. E. (1999). On measuring literacy. The World Bank.

Batmaz, V., “Medya Okuryazarlığı için Epistemolojik Bir Yaklaşım: İdeolojiyi Anlamak ve Çözmek”, in Medya Okuryazarlığı Üzerine, 2019, Eğitim Yayınevi

Berriz, B. R., Wager, A. C., & Poey, V. M. (Eds.). (2018). Art as a Way of Talking for Emergent Bilingual Youth: A Foundation for Literacy in PreK-12 Schools. Routledge.

Briggs, S. “20 Things Educators Need to Know About Digital Literacy Skills.” Innovationexcellence.com, August 12, 2014. Accessed April 15, 2015. http://www.innovationexcellence.com/blog/2014/08/12/20-things-educators-need-to-know-about-digital-literacyskills/?Itemid=92.

Brown, E. (2010), Working the Crowd Social media marketing for business, Swindon, United Kingdom: British Informatics Society Limited.

Chrisomalis, S. (2009). The origins and coevolution of literacy and numeracy. The Cambridge handbook of literacy, 59.

Chrisomalis, Stephen (2009), "The Origins and Coevolution of Literacy and Numeracy", in Olsen, D. & Torrance, N. (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Literacy (pp. 59-74). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Cordes S (2009) Broad Horizons: The Role of Multimodal Literacy in 21st Century Library Instruction. Available (consulted July 2009) at: http://www.ifla.org/files/hq/papers/ifla75/94-cordes-en.pdf

Durkheim, Emile [1893]1933 The Division of Labor in Society. George Simpson (trans.). New York: Free Press.

Eco, U., 1984,The Role of the Reader: Explorations in the Semiotics of Texts, Indiana University Press

Eddy, Matthew Daniel (2013). "The Shape of Knowledge: Children and the Visual Culture of Literacy and Numeracy". Science in Context 26: 215–245.

Encylopedia Brittanica, 2014

European Commission (2007) A European Approach to Media Literacy in the Digital Environment. Available (consulted July 2009) at: http://ec.europa.eu/avpolicy/media_literacy/docs/com/en.pdf

Frechette, J. (2016). From print newspapers to social media: News literacy in a networked environment. Studies, 9(4), 545-560.

Frigg, R., & Hunter, M. (Eds.). (2010). Beyond mimesis and convention: Representation in art and science (Vol. 262). Dordrecht: Springer.

Gainer, J. S. (2010). Critical media literacy in middle school: Exploring the politics of representation. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 53(5), 364-373.

Gee, J. P. (1996). Social Linguistics and Literacies: Ideologies in DiscoursesPhiladelphia: Falmer

Gross, F. (1999). Citizenship and ethnicity: the growth and development of a democratic multiethnic institution (No. 128). Greenwood Publishing Group.

http://en.unesco.org/themes/literacy-all

http://vedat.akcayoz.net/index.php/videolar-60/79-karsfotograflari2

http://www.lil-miss.com/2013/02/13/raising-a-reader-the-importance-of-reading-to-kids/

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/literacy

IVLA (International Visual Literacy Association) (2009) What is ‘Visual Literacy?’ Available (consulted July 2009) at: http://www.ivla.org/org_what_vis_lit.htm

Jenkins, Henry (2009). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Kellner, D., & Share, J. (2007). Critical media literacy: Crucial policy choices for a twenty-first-century democracy. Policy Futures in Education, 5(1), 59-69.

Knoebel, M. (1999). Everyday literacies: Students, discourse and social practice (Vol. 80). Peter Lang.

Knott D. (2005). Critical Reading Towards Critical Writing. Available (consulted July 2009) at: http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/reading-and-researching/critical-reading

Kratsborn, W., Jacott, L., Pembecioğlu, N., 'Identity And Citizenship: Impact Of Borders And Shifts In Boundaries'. CiCe Thematic Network, London Metropolitan Univeristy, 2008

Kress, Gunther R. (2003). Literacy in the new media age. New York: Routledge

Livingstone S (2004) Media literacy and the challenge of new information and communication technologies. Communication Review 7(1): 3–14.

McKenna, Michael C.; Richards, Janet C. (2003). Integrating multiple literacies in K-8 classrooms: cases, commentaries, and practical applications. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates

Morrell, E. (2012). 21st‐century literacies, critical media pedagogies, and language arts. The Reading Teacher, 66(4), 300-302.

Owen, J. (2000). The Collecting Activities of Sir John Lubbock (1834-1913) (Doctoral dissertation, Durham University).

Oxford English Dictionary

Pembecioğlu, N & Akgün-Çomak, N., “21. Yüzyılın Göç Tehdidindeki “Küçük Prenses”, V. Uluslararası Çocuk ve Gençlik Edebiyatı Sempozyumu, İstanbul, Türkiye, 19-20 Ekim 2018, pp.45-71

Peters, M., & Lankshear, C. (1996). Critical literacy and digital texts. Educational theory, 46(1), 51-70.

Potter, W. J. (2018). Media literacy. Sage Publications.

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants part 2: Do they really think differently?. On the horizon.

Prensky, M. R. (2012). From digital natives to digital wisdom: Hopeful essays for 21st century learning. Corwin Press.

Prensky, Marc. (2001) "Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants", part 1:On the Horizon. MCB University Press, 9 (5),1-6.

Ramesh, S. (2018). Pre-History: Emergence and Palaeolithic to Bronze Age—10,000 BC to 800 BC. In The Rise of Empires (pp. 49-88). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Richardson, R. (2012). Dickens and the workhouse: Oliver Twist and the London poor. Oxford University Press.

Schmandt-Besserat, D. (1978). "The earliest precursor of writing", Scientific American, 238(6), 38-47.

Selber, S., & Selber, S. A. (2004). Multiliteracies for a digital age. SIU Press.

Selfe, Cynthia L. (1989). Redefining literacy: The multi-layered grammar of computers. In Gail E. Hawisher & Cynthia L. Selfe (Eds.), Critical perspectives on computers and composition studies (pp. 3–15). New York: Teachers College Press

Shapiro JJ and Hughes SK (1996) Information Literacy as a Liberal Art: Enlightenment Proposals for a New Curriculum. Educom Review 31(2). http://net.educause.edu/apps/er/review/reviewArticles/31231.html

Smith, M. E. (2006). Aztec culture: an overview. Tempe: Arizona State University.

"The Plurality of Literacy and its implications for Policies and Programs". UNESCO Education Sector Position Paper: 13. 2004.

White, D. D., Youngs, Y. L., Wodrich, J. A., & Borcherding, T. (2006). Visitor experiences and transportation systems in Yosemite National Park. National Park Service.

“World”. CIA Factbook.

Zarcadoolas, C., Pleasant, A., & Greer, D. S. (2009). Advancing health literacy: A framework for understanding and action (Vol. 45). John Wiley & Sons.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Nilüfer Pembecioğlu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).