Eunice C. Osunka, Glad O. Unachukwu


The study investigated the relationship between teachers’ rating of principals’ transformational and directive ethical leadership behaviours and teachers’ job-related stress in secondary schools in Enugu State. Two research questions guided the study and two hypotheses were tested. The study utilized the correlation research design. The population of the study was 9764 teachers from the 330 public secondary schools in the state. A sample size of 1,380 teachers was used for the study. This was drawn from 66 out of the 330 secondary schools in the six education zones in Enugu State using the multistage sampling procedure which involved simple random sampling techniques. Data were collected using two questionnaires entitled “Principals’ Transformational and Directive Ethical Leadership Behaviour Questionnaire (PTDELBQ)” and “Teachers’ Stress Inventory – Revised (TSI). The instruments were validated by three experts. The internal consistency of the instruments was ascertained using Cronbach Alpha. This yielded reliability co-efficient of 0.81 and 0.86 for PTDELBQ and TSI respectively. Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to answer the research questions and to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that there is a low negative relationship between teachers’ rating of principals’ transformational ethical leadership behaviour and teachers’ job-related stress, and between teachers’ rating of principals’ directive ethical behaviour and teachers’ job-related stress. Based on these findings, it was recommended among others that teacher training programmes should include training for teachers in the art of stress management and prevention as a requirement for certification in the teaching profession.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



principal, ethics, leadership behaviour, job stress

Full Text:



Agbim, K. C. (2018). Effect of ethical leadership on corporate governance, performance and social responsibility: A study of selected deposit money banks in Benue state, Nigeria. International Journal of Community Development and Management Studies. 3(2) 20-37.

Anastasiou S. & Papakonstantinou, G. (2014). Factors affecting job satisfaction, stress and

work performance of secondary education teachers in Epirus, NW Greece: International. Journal of Management in Education, 8, (1), 37–53.

Anit S. & Maayan W. (2006). The impact of participative and directive leadership on teachers' performance: The intervening effects of job structuring, decision. Domain, and leader-member exchange performance: Educational Administration Quarterly 42, (5) 746-772

Avolio, B. J. & Bass, B. M. (2004). Full range leadership development: Manual for the multifactor leadership questionnaire. Palo Alto, USA: Mind Garden Inc.

Bağrıyanık H., & Can, N. (2017). The relation between teachers’ perception of ethical leadership, organizational justice and organizational cynicism. Journal of Studies in Education, 7 (2), 122-131

Carla, Mckinney-Thompson (2015). Teacher stress and burnout and principals’ leadership styles: (Unpublished doctorate degree thesis). University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United states of America.

Eboka, O. C. (2016). Principals’ leadership styles and gender influence on teachers’ morale in public secondary schools. Journal of Education and Practice 7, (15), 2016.

Federal Government of Nigeria (2013). National policy on education. Lagos: NERDC Press.

Güzel, B., & Ayazlar, G. (2014). The effect of organizational justice towards organizational

cynicism and job quit intentions: A research on hotels. KMÜ Journal of Social and Economic Research, 16 (26) 133-142.

Hao Z., Maozhu J., & Qian M. (2015). Remedy for work stress: The impact and mechanism

of ethical leadership. Century European Journal of Public Health; 23 (2): 176–180

House, R. J. & Mitchell, T. R. (1974). Path-goal theory of leadership. Contemporary Business, 3, Fall, 81-98.

Ikegbusi, I. N. G. (2016). Management competency needs of principals for effective administration of secondary schools in Nigeria. International Journal of Advanced Research in Education and Technology (IJARET). 3, (3) 61-67.

Kalejaiye-Matti, R. B., Abdullahi, M. Z., Garba, B. & Balogun, R. B. (2016). Stress management and the Nigerian teachers. International Journal of Education, Learning and Development. 4, (2) 1-9,

Kooskora, M. & Mägi, P. (2010). Ethical leadership behaviour and employee job satisfaction. Proceedings of the 11th EBEN Research Conference University of Jyväskylä Press, 112 - 126. ISBN: 978-951-39-3876-5.

Lambersky, J. (2016). Understanding the human side of school leadership: Principals’ impact on teachers’ morale, self-efficacy, stress, and commitment. Leadership and Policy in Schools. 15, (4) 71-78.

Nwimo, I. O. (2005). Level of stress among secondary school teachers in Enugu State. Review of Education,16 (2), 114-124.

Nwimo, I. O. & Onwunaka C. (2015). Stress among secondary school teachers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Suggested interventions in the worksite milieu. Journal of Educational Practices 6: (26) 93–100.

Oluremi, O. F. (2013). Management competence; Need for effective professionalization of Nigeria secondary school principals. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review. 2, (10), 49.

Onwurah C. U., & Chiaha, G. T. U. (2008). Application of transformation leadership behaviours by primary school, head teachers: A reform for the attainment of millennium development goals (MDGs). In B. G. Nworgu (Ed.) Educational reforms and the attainment of the millennium development goals. The Nigerian experience. Nsukka: University Trust Publishers Ltd.

Pragya Singh (2017). Study of impact of principal leadership behaviour on occupational stress among teachers. International Journal of Academic Research and Development 2; (5) 651-653.

Wachira F. M., Gitumu M. & Mbugua Z. (2017) Effect of principals’ leadership styles on teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Kieni West Sub-County. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention 6 (8).72-86.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Eunice C. Osunka, Glad O. Unachukwu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).