Ali Selman Özdemir, Tebessüm Ayyıldız Durhan


The aim of this research is to determine the optimal mood of the professional athletes and to examine the direction of these variables. While 506 participants from different branches who are doing sports in a professional sense are selected through sampling for the purpose of the research, the data is obtained by Dispositional Flow-2 scale. The scale form is developed by Jackson and Elkund (2004), adapted by Aşçı et al (2012) in Turkish and determined by Daşdan Ada et al. (2012) through validity and reliability studies, consisted of 36 items and 9 sub-dimensions. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, one-way analysis of variance Anova tests were used in the analysis of the data. The internal reliability coefficient for the entire DFS-2 was determined as .94. According to the findings, significant relationships and differences were determined based on the fact that professional athletes constantly display optimal mood level at average values, sports branch, duration of doing sports, number of weekly training sessions, participation in international matches, and comparison to their previous experiences. As a result, it was determined that the professional athletes who do sports in the volleyball branch, the ones with the highest sports year, the ones who train the most a week, those who have participated in international competitions and those who find the general development levels are higher than the other professional athletes. Therefore, it can be said that successful athletes who are engaged in team sports and do sports for a longer period of time have better dispositional flow level.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



flow, dispositional flow, professional athletes, volleyball, tennis, athletics

Full Text:



Altıntaş, A., Aşçı, F.H., Çağlar, E. (2010). Dispositional Flow State and Exercise Behavior. Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences, 21 (2), 71–78.

Arıcı, G., Güdek, B. (2019). The Analysis Of The Relationship Between The Self Perceptıons Of Students Who Get Professıonal Musıcal Education Towards Instruments And Their Permanent Optimal Performance Emotional State. The Journal of Academic Social Science 7(97), 82-103.

Arslan Ayazlar, R. (2015). Effects of Flow Experience on Paragliding Experience Satisfaction and Life Satisfaction, Unpublished Phd Thesis. Adnan Menderes University, Institute of Social Sciences, Aydın.

Asakawa, K. (2010). Flow experience, culture, and well-being: How do autotelic Japa-nese college students feel, behave, and think in their daily lives? Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(2), 205-223. doi:10.1007/s10902-008-9132-3.

Aşçı, F.H., Çağlar, E., Eklund, R.C., Altıntaş, A., Jackson, S. (2007). The Adaptatıon Study Of Dısposıtıonal Flow Scale–2 And Flow State Scale–2, Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences, 18 (4): 182-196.

Aykurt, T. (2019). Investigation of the Relationship between Excitement and Performance Emotion (flow) in Kite Surfers: The Case of Muğla and Boracay. Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Institute of Social Science, Mater Thesis, Muğla.

Bayköse, N. (2014). The Role of Self Talk and Imagery Level of Athletes in Determinig The Flow. Selçuk University, Institute of Health, Master Thesis. Konya.

Ceviker, A., Ozlu, K., Deryahanoglu,G., Demirdoken, C., Turkay, H. (2020). The examination of the personality traits and optimal performance mood of the university athletes. Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports. 24(1):4-1.

Chang, H.H. (2017). Gender differences in leisure involvement and flow experience in professional extreme sport activities, World Leisure Journal, 59:2, 124-139, DOI: 10.1080/16078055.2016.1166152.

Csikszentmihalyi M. (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond Boredom and Anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row.

Daşdan Ada, N.E, Aşçı, H.F., Kazak Çetinkalp, F.Z., Altıparmak, M.E. (2012). Evaluation of Dispositional Flow State Scale-2 (DFS-2) For Physical Education Lessons. Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences, 23 (2), 43–49.

Demirutku, K., Ağaoğlu, D. (2018). Flow Experience of the Theatre Audience: Testing the Affective Variety, Intensity, and Valence Hypotheses. AYNA Klinik Psikoloji Dergisi, 2018, 5 (3), 33-60.

Engeser, S. (2012). Advances in flow research. New York, NY: Springer.

Engeser, S., Schiepe Tiska, A. (2012). Historical Lines and an Overview of Current Research on Flow, 1-22. (In) Engeser, S. (2012). Advances in flow research. New York, NY: Springer.

Ersöz, G. (2011). An Examination of Exercise Motivational Orientations, Dispositional Flow State and Social Physique Anxiety of Exercisers In terms of Stage of Change and Physical Activity Level. Ege University, Institute of Health, PhD Thesis, İzmir.

Eryılmaz, G. (2018). The Relationship between Flow Experiences, Positive and Negative Emotions, Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction of Individuals Attending Recreative Activities. Mersin University Institute of Social Science, Phd Thesis, Mersin.

Filep, S. (2008). Applying the Dimensions of Flow to Explore Visitor Engagement and Satisfaction. Visitor Studies, 11 (1), 90-108.

Guo, Y. M. ve Poole, M. S. (2009) Antecedents of Flow in Online Shopping: A Test of Alternative Models, Info Systems,19, 369-390.

Jackson SA, Eklund RC. (2004). The Flow Scales Manual. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology, Inc.

Jackson, S.S., Thomas, P.R., Marsh, H.W., Smetrhurst, C.J. (2001). Relationships between Flow, Self-Concept, Psychological Skills, and Performance. Journal Of Applied Sport Psychology, 13, 129-153.

Kaya, B., Metin, T., Akoğlan Kozak, M. (2015). Flow Experience of Users in Indoor Recreation Facilities. Journal of Travel and Hospitality Management 12 (2), 2015, 6-25.

Koehn. S. (2007). Opensity And Attainment Of Flow State, Victoria University, School Of Human Movement Recreation And Performance, Faculty Of Human Development, PhD Thesis.

Kurtuluş, A., Eryılmaz, A. (2017). The Relationship between Reflective Thinking Skills Based on Problem Solving and Flow Experiences in Mathematics. Journal of Theoretical Educational Science, 10(3), 349-365.

Murcia, J.A.M., Gimeno, E.C., Coll, D.G.C. (2008). Relationship among goal orientations, motivational climate and flow in adolescents athletes: Differences by gender. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 11 (1), 181-191.

Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009). The concept of flow. In Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (Ed.). Oxford handbook of positive psychology. Oxford University Press, USA. 89-105.

Nielsen, K., Cleal, B. (2010). Predicting flow at work: Investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work. Journal of Occupational He-alth Psychology, 15(2), 180-190.

Novak, T. P., Hoffman,D. L. ve Yung, Y. F. (2000). Measuring The Customer Experience. Marketing Science, 19 (1), 22-42.

Oertig, D., Schüler, J., Buchli, R. (2013). Fit Between Situational And Dispositional Goal Orientation, And Its Effects On Flow Experience And Affective Well-Being During Sports.142-157 (In) Mohiyeddini, C. (2013). Advances In The Psychology Of Sports And Exercise, New York, Nova Publishers.

Öz, M. (2019). Investigation of the Relationship between Continuous Anxiety and Anxiety Sensitivity and Flow Experiences in University Students Studying in Conservatory Music Department, Institute of Social Sciemce, Master's Thesis, İstanbul.

Seleciler, C. (2019). Determination of Imagination and Optimal Performance Emotional State Level of University Students Who Are Educated in Folk Dances. Bartın University, Institute of Educational Science. Master Thesis, Bartın.

Sharp, E.H, Coastsworth J.D., Darling, N., Cumsille, P. , Ranieri, S. (2007). Gender differences in the self-defining activities and identity experiences of adolescents and emerging adults. Journal of Adolescence, 30, 251-269.

Sümer, K. (2019). Investigation of The Relationship Between Coach Communication Skills And Flow Experience In Athletes. Pamukkale University, Institute of Health, Master Thesis, Denizli.

Şişman, B., Küçük, S. (2018). Pre-Service Teachers’ Flow, Anxiety And Cognitive Load Levels In Robotics Programming. Educational Technology. Theory and practice. 8(2),108- 124.

Ullén F., Manzano Ö., Almeida R., Magnusson P. K. E., Pedersen N. L., Nakamura J., Madison, G. (2012). Proneness for psychological flow in everyday life: Asso-ciations with personality and intelligence. Personality and Individual Differen-ces, 52(2), 167-172. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.10.003.

Yanar, Ş., Kırandı, Ö., Çimen, K. (2017). Investigation of Success Motivation And Optimal Performance Signal Relationship In Tennis. Spor Eğitim Dergisi 1(1), 69-75.

Yanık, A. (2014). Effect of Stream Experience in New Media Usage on Risk Perception and Touristic Purchasing Intention, Unpublished Master’s. Adnan Menderes University, Institute of Social Science, Aydın.

Yeşiltaş, M. D. ve Türk, M. (2017). A research on work flow theory and the relationship between the five-factor personality model. Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Journal of Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences,1(2), 117-128.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Ali Selman Özdemir, Tebessüm Ayyıldız Durhan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).