Christine Mwanza, Darious Silukuni


In this study, researchers investigated the implementation of Free Primary Education Policy in selected primary schools of Kafue district of Zambia. The study’s objective was to determine the possible conflicts that had arose between learners’ access to education and supply of quality education. As a descriptive survey, the study population consisted of one hundred and twenty (120) teachers, twenty-four (24) head teachers one (2) Ministry of General Education (MoGE) officials. The teachers responded to a questionnaire while the head teachers and MoGE officials were interviewed using structured interview schedules. An observation checklist was used to record the schools’ enrolments, equipment and facilities that were available. Data was analyzed thematically as themes and sub themes emerged from the data. Finding showed that there were high enrolments in Kafue primary schools, an indication that many learners had free access to education but this led to a number of challenges such as: inadequate educational supplies, low staffing levels, inadequate classrooms and desks. Teachers were being overworked and were unable to attend to individual needs of pupils. They also could not manage to give adequate homework and remedial work due to large classes. Consequently, the Zambian government seems to have failed to meet the needs of primary schools in Kafue due to the surge in enrolments. Scholars in this study recommended that the Ministry of General Education should evaluate the practicality and sustainably of the Free Primary Education in all primary schools in Kafue district. Furthermore, additional funds should be allocated for schools to enable them buy teaching and learning materials.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


curriculum implementation, free primary education policy, quality education

Full Text:



Beiter, D. K. (2006). The Protection of the Right to Education by International Law. London:

Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Duncan, A., Macmillan, H. and Simutanyi, N. (2003). Zambia, Drivers of Pro-Poor Change:

An Overview. Oxford: Oxford Policy Management.

Deininger, K. (2003). Does Cost of Schooling Affect Enrolment by the Poor? Universal

Primary Education in Uganda. Economics of Education Review, 22, 291-305

Kattan, R. B. (2006). Implementation of Free Basic Education Policy. Washington DC: World Bank.

Kaulule, R. S. (2006). Effects of Free Education Policy in Selected Basic Schools of Ndola and Masaiti Districts of Copperbelt Province, Zambia. Med Dissertation. Lusaka: The University of Zambia.

Kelly, M. J. (1999). The Origin and Development of Education in Zambia: From Pre-Colonia Times to 1996. Lusaka: Image Publishers Limited.

Kelly, M. J. (1991). Education in a Declining Economy. Washington D.C. World Bank.

Knight, E. and Sabot, W. (1990). Education, Productivity and Equity. Paris: Oxford University Press.

Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row.

Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a Psychology of Being. New York: D. Van Nostran Company.

Masumba, C. K. and Mulenga, I. M. (2019). Teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge for teaching Computer Studies in rural Zambian secondary schools of North-western Province. Zambia Journal of Library & Information Science (ZAJLIS). 3 (1 & 2). 90-106.

Ministry of Education (2002). Educational Statistical Bulletin. Lusaka: Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education (1996). Educating Our Future: National Policy on Education. Lusaka:

Zambia Educational Publishing House.

Moobola, L. and Mulenga, I. M. (2020). Social Studies Curriculum at The Crossroads: Implementation of the Secondary School Social Studies Curriculum in Chingola district of Zambia. European Journal of Education Studies. 7(3), 13-34.

Mukudi, E. (2004). Education for All: A Framework for Addressing the Persisting Illusion for the Kenyan Context. International Journal of Education Development. 24(3), 231-240. http://doi:10.1016/

Mulenga, I. M. (2018). Conceptualization and Definition of a Curriculum. Journal of

Lexicography and Terminology. 2 (2), 1-23.

Mulenga, I. M. and Chileshe, E. K. (2020). Appropriateness and Adequacy of Teaching and Learning Resources and Students’ Industrial Attachment in Public Colleges of Technical and Vocational Education in Zambia. East African Journal of Education and Social Sciences. 1(2), 30-42.

Mulenga, I. M. and Kabombwe, M. Y. (2019a). Understanding a Competency-Based Curriculum and Education: The Zambian Perspective. Journal of Lexicography and Terminology, 3(1). 106-134.

Mulenga, I. M. and Kabombwe, M. Y. (2019b). A Competency-Based Curriculum for Zambian Primary and Secondary Schools: Learning from Theory and some Countries around the World. International Journal of Education and Research, 7(2), 117-130.

Mulenga, I. M. and Lubasi, I. M. (2019). Teachers Present in School but Absent in Class:

Utilization and ‘Silent Erosion’ of Learning Time in the Implementation of the Curriculum in Mongu District of Zambia. European Journal of Education Studies, 6(2), 61-79.

Mulenga, I. M. & Mwanza, C. (2019). Teacher’s Voices Crying in the School Wilderness: Involvement of Secondary School Teachers in Curriculum Development in Zambia. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching. 8(1). 32-39.

Musilekwa, S. and Mulenga, I. M. (2019). Development of Social Studies Learners’ Textbooks for Secondary Schools in Zambia. Journal of Education and Practice, 10(6), 99-108.

Mwanza, C. and Mulenga, I. M. (2018). Voices Confined to Classrooms: The Marginalised Status of Teachers in Curriculum Development in Lusaka, Zambia. Multidisciplinary Journal of Language and Social Sciences Education, 1(2), 63-83.

Nielsen, H. D. (2009). Moving Toward Free Primary Education: Policy Issues and Implementation Challenges- A state of the Art Review: UNICEF Policy and Practice.

Oxfam (2001). Education Charges: A tax on Human Development. Oxfam Briefing Paper

Number 3.

Plank, D. (2007). School fees and education for all: Is abolition the answer? EQUIP2 project

working paper. Academy for Educational Development. Washington DC: USAID.

Saroso, O. (23rd March 2005). The Poor Still Waiting for Government Assistance. The Jakarta

Post, pp.16-20.

Siaciwena, R. and Lubinda, F. (2008). The Role of Open and Distance Learning in the Implementation of the Right to Education in Zambia. Volume 9(1).

Sikwibele, A. (2003). Editorial Assessment of Educational Policy: Free Education Policy in Zambia. DPMN Bulletin, Volume x (1).

Tembo, K and Ndhlovu, G. (2005) Government Strives to Increase access to Education. News

from Africa: Kenya.

UNESCO (2003). EFA Global Monitoring Report 2005: Education for All: The Quality Imperative. Paris: UNESCO.

UNESCO (2006). Assessment of Free Primary Education-Fact Book in line with Education for All. Nairobi: UNESCO.

UNICEF and World Bank (2009). Africa Human Development Series, Development Practice in Education. Paris: World Bank Publications.

Verspoor, M. A. (2008). At the Crossroads Choice for Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. London: World Bank Publications.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Christine Mwanza, Darious Silukuni

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).