Şenil Ünlü-Çetin, Hakan Koğar


The aim of the current study is to develop a scale that measure pre-service early childhood educators’ beliefs about infant and toddler education(I/TE). 384 candidate early childhood educators from different public universities were constituted the sample of the study. Reliability and validity analysis were run for the 60-items “Infant Toddler Education Belief Scale for pre-service early childhood educators (ITEBS4PECES)”. Explanatory and Confirmatory factor analysis of ITEBS4PECES indicated that ITEBS4PECES is a 5-Likert scale with 35 items and four factors. Factor loading values ranged between .439 and .762. The total variance explained by the scale is 39.02%. The reliability coefficients of Cronbach alpha ranged from 0.81 to 0.85 for factors. As one of the first attempts to measure beliefs about infant-toddler education of pre-service teachers, this valid and reliable scale is believed to lead more research on infant toddler education and by this way contribute a lot to early childhood education field.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


infant toddler education, pre-service teacher beliefs, scale development, pre-service early childhood educators

Full Text:



Anderson, Treshawn L, 2015. Beliefs about Toddler and Care: A New Measure for Infant/toddler Teachers. PhD Thesis, Purdue University, Accessed: 25.06.2020

Aşkar, P., Erden, M, 1987. Öğretmenlik Mesleğine Yönelik Tutum Ölçeği. Çağdaş Eğitim, 121, 8-11.

Bandura, A, 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control, New York: Freeman.

Berthelsen, D., Brownlee, J, 2007. Working with toddlers in child care: Practitioners’ beliefs about their role. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22: 347-362. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2006.12.002

Berthelsen, D., Brownlee, J., Boulton-Lewis, G, 2002. Caregivers’ epistemological beliefs in toddler programs. Early Child Development and Care, 172: 503-516. doi: 10.1080/03004430214547

Burts, D. C., Sciaraffa, M. 2001. Teacher beliefs and practices survey: Infants and toddlers. Unpublished manuscript.

Burts, D. C., Buchanan, T. K., Benedict, J. H. 2001. Teacher beliefs and practices survey: 3-to 5-year-olds. Unpublished manuscript.

Büyüköztürk, Ş. 2002. Sosyal Bilimler İçin Veri Analizi El Kitabı. İstatistik, Araştırma Deseni SPSS Uygulamaları ve Yorum. Ankara: Pegem Yayıncılık.

Butterfield, P., Martin, C., Prairie, A. and Martin, C. A. 2004. Emotional Connections: How Relationships Guide Early Learning, Zero to Three.

Caldwell, B, 2002. The Educare of Children in the twenty-first century, In the Infant and Family in the Twenty-First Century edited by Joao Gomes-Pedro, J. Kevin Nugent, J. Gerald Young, T. Berry Brazelton,189-202, New York: Routledge.

Charlesworth, R., Hart, C. H., Burts, D. C., Thomasson, R. H., Mosley, J., and Fleege, P. O. 1993. Measuring the developmental appropriateness of kindergartenteachers’ beliefs and practices. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 8: 255–276

Charlesworth, R., Hart, C. H., Burts, D. C., Hernandez, S, 1991. Kindergarten teachers’ beliefs and practices, Early Child Development and Care, 70:17–35

Cheshire, N, 2007. The 3 R’s: Gateway to infant and toddler learning, Dimensions of Early Childhood,35(3): 36-38.

Cochran-Smith, M, 2002. Reporting on teacher quality: The politics of politics. Journal of Teacher Education, 53, 379-382.

Cole, D. A, 1987. The utility of confirmatory factor analysis in test validation research Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55: 584-594.

Coşkun, T, 2015. Early childhood teachers’ beliefs towards participation rights of children, Master Thesis, METU., Accessed: 25.06.2020

DeVellis, R. F, 1991. Scale Development: Theory and Applications (Applied Social Research Methods Series, Vol. 26). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Duatepe-Paksu, A., Akkus, O, 2004. The attitudes towards teaching professions of in service and preservice primary school teachers, Pedagogika, 71: 61-65.

Eğitim Reformu Gelişimi (ERG), Anne Çocuk Eğitim Vakfı (AÇEV), 2017. Türkiye’de Okul Öncesi Eğitime Katılım: Bilgi Notu”, veokuloncesiegitime-katilim/: Accessed 25.06.2020.

El-Ashry, F. R. 2009. General education preservice teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion in Egypt, Phd Thesis, Graduate School of the University of Florida, Florida, USA. Accessed 26.06.2020.

Espinosa, L, 2002. High-quality preschool: Why we need it and what it looks like. New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for Early Education Research.

European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice 2019. Key Data on Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe – 2019 Edition. Eurydice Report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. doi:10.2797/894279

Garvis, S., Pendergast, D, 2015. Thinking differently about infants and toddlers: Exploring the reflections of future Australian early childhood teachers in Australia.Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 40(4). Accessed 15.06.2020

Garvis, S., Lemon, N., Pendergast, D., Yim, B, 2013. A Content Analysis of EarlyChildhood Teachers’ Theoretical and Practical Experiences with Infants and Toddlers in Australian Teacher Education Program. Australian Journal of Teacher Education,38(9).

Girolametto, L., Weitzman, E, 2002. Responsiveness’ of child care providers ininteractions with toddlers and preschoolers. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services to Schools, 33: 268-281.

Grantham-McGregor, S. Cheung, Y. B., Cueto, S., Glewwe, P., Richter, L., Strupp, B., The International Child Development Steering Group, 2007. Child development in developing countries 1: Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries, The Lancet, 369: 60–70.

Green, T, 1971. The Activities of Teaching. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Hestenes, L. L., Cassidy, D., Hegde, A., Lower, J. K, 2007. Quality in Inclusive and Noninclusive Infant and Toddler Classrooms, Journal of Research in Childhood Education,22(1): 69-84.

Jeong, J, 2004. Analysis of the Factors and the Roles of Hrd in Organiational Learning Styles as Identified by Key Informants at Selected Corporations in the Republic of Korea. Master thesis, Texas University.

Kline, P. 2014. An Easy Guide to Factor Analysis. Routledge.

Kline, R. B. 2005. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, 2nd Ed., New York: The Guilford Press.

Kim, K. R. 2005. Teacher beliefs and practices survey: Operationalizing the 1997 NAEYC guidelines. PhD Dissertation, Louisiana State University.

Li, W., Farkas, G., Duncan, G. J., Burchinal, M. R., Vandell, D. Li 2012. Timing of high quality child care and cognitive, language, and pre-academic development. Developmental Psychology, 49(8): 1440 1451.

Liljedahl, P., Rösken, B., Rolka, K, 2019.Changes to preservice elementary teachers’ beliefs about mathematics and the teaching and learning of mathematics: How and why?, Journal of Adult Learning, Knowledge and Innovation, Doi: 10.1556/2059.03.2019.09.

Marchant, G.J, 1992. Attitudes toward research-based effective teaching behaviors, Journal of Instructional Psychology, 19 (2): 127-131.

McMullen, M., Alat, K, 2002. Education matters in the nurturing of the beliefs of preschool caregivers and teachers. Early Childhood Research and Practice [Online], 4(2)., Accessed 15.06.2020.

Nolan, A., Rouse, E, 2010. First choice: Early childhood, report to the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development on career aspirations of preservice teachers studying dual sector education qualifications in early childhood and primary. Melbourne: DEECD.

Nolan, A., Rouse, E. 2013. Where to From Here? Career Choices of Preservice Teachers Undertaking a Dual Early Childhood / Primary Qualification, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 38(1): 1-10.

No Child Left Behind. 2004. New no child left behind flexibility: Highly qualified teachers, March 2004, Accessed 20.06.2020.

Norris, D. J. 2010. Raising the educational requirements for teachers in infant/toddler classrooms: implications for institutions of higher education. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 31: 146 - 158.

Pajares, F. 1992. Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3): 307–332. doi:10.3102/00346543062003307

Parker, C, 1998. An Analysis of Novice and Experienced Secondary teachers’ Perceptions of Teaching, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alabama.

Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Storm, M. D., Sawyer, B. E., Pianta, R. C., LaParo, K. M, 2006.The Teacher Belief Q-Sort: A measure of teachers’ priorities in relation to disciplinary practices, teaching practices, and beliefs about children”. Journal of School Psychology, 44: 141–165. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2006.01.003

Rouse, L., Morrissey, A. M., Rahimi, M, 2012. Problematic placement: pathways preservice teachers’ perspectives on their infant/toddler placement, Early Years, 32(1): 87-98.

Schommer-Aikins, M, 2004. Explaining the epistemological belief system: Introducing the embedded systemic model and coordinated research approach. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 19–29. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep3901_3

Smith, K. E, 1997. Student teachers’ beliefs about developmentally appropriate practice: Pattern, stability, and the influence of locus of control. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12: 221-243. doi: 10.1016/S0885-2006(97)90015-6

Sroufe, L. A, 1996. Cambridge studies in social and emotional development. Emotional development: The organization of emotional life in the early years. Cambridge University Press.

Sümer, N, 2000. Yapısal eşitlik modelleri: Temel kavramlar ve örnek uygulamalar.” Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 3(6): 49-74.

Tabachnik, B. G., Fidell, L. S, 1989. Multivariate Statistical Analysis. New York: Harper& Row, Publishers, Inc.

Tepe, D., Demir, K, 2012. Okul Öncesi Öğretmenlerinin Öz-Yeterlik İnançları Ölçeği. Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi.

Tezbaşaran, A, 1997. Likert Tipi Ölçek Geliştirme Kılavuzu, 2nd Ed., Türk Psikologlar Derneği Yayını, Ankara.

Thomason, A. C., La Paro, K.M, 2009. Measuring the Quality of Teacher–Child Interactions in Toddler Child Care, Early Education and Development, 20(2): 285 304

Hacettepe Üniversitesi Nüfus Etütleri Enstitüsü, 2015. 2013 Türkiye Nüfus ve Sağlık Araştırması İleri Analiz Çalışması (TUİK). Hacettepe Üniversitesi Nüfus Etütleri Enstitüsü, T.C. Kalkınma Bakanlığı ve TÜBİTAK, Ankara, Türkiye.

Ünlü-Çetin, Ş, 2019. Okul Öncesi Öğretmen Adaylarının Bebeklik Döneminde Kurum Temelli Eğitime İlişkin Görüşleri, Erken Çocukluk Çalışmaları Dergisi, 3(2) :300-334

Üstüner, M, 2006. Öğretmenlik Mesleğine Yönelik Tutum Ölçeğinin geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması, Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi Dergisi, 45: 109-127.

Vandell D.L., Belsky J., Burchinal M., Steinberg L., Vandergrift, N., NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 2010. Do the effects of early child care extend to age 15 years? Results from the NICHD study of early child care and youth development. Child Development, 81 (3): 737-756, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01431.x



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Şenil Ünlü-Çetin, Hakan Koğar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).