Eirini Tzovla, Katerina Kedraka


The role of the teacher is of great importance in learning and his beliefs affect effectiveness of teaching in every cognitive object. This paper deals with the personal self-efficacy beliefs and the outcome expectancy of in-service teachers teaching biological concepts in Primary School. The study was conducted with 509 in-service elementary teachers and the bio-STEBI-A, which is an adaptation of STEBI-A, was used as the data collection instrument. The results of our survey indicated that in-service elementary teachers scored moderate self-efficacy and their personal self-efficacy beliefs were found to be greater than their outcome expectancy. Recommendations are made for future research.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


in-service elementary teachers, biological concepts, self-efficacy

Full Text:



Akgün, A. E., Keskin, H., & Byrne, J. (2009). Organizational emotional capability, product and process innovation, and firm performance: An empirical analysis. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 26(3), 103-130. 10.1016/j.jengtecman.2009.06.008

Albion, P. R., & Spence, K. G. (2013). Primary Connections in a provincial Queensland school system: Relationships to science teaching self-efficacy and practices. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 8(3), 501-520. DOI: 10.12973/ijese.2013.215a

Angle, J., & Moseley, C. (2009). Science teacher efficacy and outcome expectancy as predictors of students' end‐of‐instruction (EOI) biology I test scores. School Science and Mathematics, 109(8), 473-483.

Ateş, H., & Saylan, A. (2015). Investigation of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Academic Self-Efficacy and Academic Motivation toward Biology. International Journal of Higher Education, 4(3), 90-103. DOI:

Aurah, Catherine M., and Tom J. McConnell. "Comparative Study on Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Teaching in Kenya and the United States of America; USA." American Journal of Educational Research 2.4 (2014): 233-239. DOI: 10.12691/education-2-4-9

Aydin, S., & Boz, Y. (2010). Pre-service elementary science teachers’ science teaching efficacy beliefs and their sources. Elementary Education Online, 9(2), 694-704.

Baldwin, J. A., Ebert‐May, D., & Burns, D. J. (1999). The development of a college biology self‐efficacy instrument for nonmajors. Science Education, 83(4), 397-408.<397::AID-SCE1>3.0.CO;2-%23.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191.

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American psychologist, 37(2), 122.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy and health behaviour. Cambridge handbook of psychology, health and medicine, 160-162.

Bayraktar, S. (2011). Turkish preservice primary school teachers' science teaching efficacy beliefs and attitudes toward science: The effect of a primary teacher education program. School Science and Mathematics, 111(3), 83-92.

Bergman, D. J., & Morphew, J. (2015). Effects of a science content course on elementary preservice teachers' self-efficacy of teaching science. Journal of College Science Teaching, 44(3), 73-81.

Bleicher, R. E. (2007). Nurturing confidence in preservice elementary science teachers. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 18(6), 841-860.

Brouwers, A., & Tomic, W. (2000). A longitudinal study of teacher burnout and perceived self-efficacy in classroom management. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(2), 239–253.

Brownell, M. T., & Pajares, F. (1999). Teacher efficacy and perceived success in mainstreaming students with learning and behavior problems. Teacher Education and Special Education, 22(3), 154-164.

Bryce, R., Oliver, M. K., Davies, L., Gray, H., Urquhart, J., & Lambin, X. (2011). Turning back the tide of American mink invasion at an unprecedented scale through community participation and adaptive management. Biological Conservation, 144(1), 575-583.

Bursal, M. (2012). Perceived peer support and personal science teaching efficacy beliefs of preservice elementary teachers. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 9(4), 10-21.

Çimen, O., Gökmen, A., Altunsoy, S., Ekici, G., & Yılmaz, M. (2011). Analysis of biology candidate teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs on environmental education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Science, 15, 2549-2553. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.143

Cox, C. A., & Carpenter, J. R. (1989). Improving attitudes toward teaching science and reducing science anxiety through increasing confidence in science ability in inservice elementary school teachers. Journal of Elementary Science Education, 1(2), 14-34.

Dellinger, A. B., Bobbett, J. J., Olivier, D. F., & Ellett, C. D. (2008). Measuring teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs: Development and use of the TEBS-Self. Teaching and teacher education, 24(3), 751-766.

Demirci, F., & Ozyurek, C. (2018). Astronomy Teaching Self-Efficacy Belief Scale: The Validity and Reliability Study. Journal of Education and Learning, 7(1), 258-271. DOI: 10.5539/jel.v7n1p258

Ekici, G., Fettahlıoğlu, P., & Çıbık, A. S. (2012). Biology Self Efficacy Beliefs of the Students Studying in the Department of Biology and Department of Biology Teaching. International Online Journal of Educational Science, 4(1).

Emmer, E. T., & Hickman, J. (1991). Teacher efficacy in classroom management and discipline. Educational and psychological measurement, 51(3), 755-765.

Enochs, L. G., Riggs, I. M., & Sc Ellis, J. D. (1993). The Development and Partial Validation of Microcomputer Utilization in Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument in a Science Setting. School Science and Mathematics, 93, 257-263.

Enochs, L. G., Smith, P. L., & Huinker, D. (2000). Establishing factorial validity of the mathematics teaching efficacy beliefs instrument. School Science and Mathematics, 100(4), 194-202.

Evans, R. (2012). Active strategies during inquiry-based science teacher education to improve long-term teacher self-efficacy. In Daugbjerg, P. S. (Eds.), Proceedings of Science teachers' narratives on motivation and commitment: A story about recruitment and retention. Paper presented at European Science Education Research Association, Lyon, France.

Fives, H., & Buehl, M. M. (2012). Spring cleaning for the “messy” construct of teachers’ beliefs: What are they? Which have been examined? What can they tell us? In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, T. Urdan, S. Graham, J. M. Royer, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), APA handbooks in psychology®. APA educational psychology handbook, Vol. 2. Individual differences and cultural and contextual factors (p. 471–499). American Psychological Association.

Flores, I. M. (2015). Developing Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy through Field-Based Science Teaching Practice with Elementary Students. Research in Higher Education Journal, 27.

Gerçek, C., Yılmaz, M., Köseoğlu, P., & Soran, H. (2006). Biology teaching self-efficacy beliefs of the teacher candidates. Ankara University. Journal of Faculty of Educational Science, 39(1), 57-73.

Gibson, S., & Dembo, M. (1984). Teacher efficacy: A construct validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(4), 569-582.

Gosselin, D. C., Thomas, J., Redmond, A., Larson-Miller, C., Yendra, S., Bonnstetter, R. J., & Slater, T. F. (2010). Laboratory earth: A model of online K-12 teacher coursework. Journal of Geoscience Education, 58(4), 203-213.

Gunning, A. M., & Mensah, F. M. (2011). Preservice elementary teachers’ development of self-efficacy and confidence to teach science: A case study. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 22(2), 171-185. DOI: 10.1007/s10972-010-9198-8

Guskey, T. R. (1988). Teacher efficacy, self-concept, and attitudes toward the implementation of instructional innovation. Teaching and teacher education, 4(1), 63-69.

Hechter, R. P. (2011). Changes in preservice elementary teachers’ personal science teaching efficacy and science teaching outcome expectancies: The influence of context. Journal of science teacher education, 22(2), 187-202.

Kennedy, K. J., & Hui, S. K. (2006). Developing teacher leaders to facilitate Hong Kong's curriculum reforms: Self-efficacy as a measure of teacher growth. International Journal of Educational Reform, 15(1), 114-128.

Koutsianou, A., & Emvalotis, A. (2019). Greek Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs in Science and Mathematics Teaching: Initial Adaptation of the STEBI-B and MTEBI Instruments. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 5(3), 375-385. DOI 10.12973/ijem.5.3.375.

Lakshmanan, A., Heath, B. P., Perlmutter, A., & Elder, M. (2010). The impact of science content and professional learning communities on science teaching efficacy and standards‐based instruction. Journal of research in science teaching, 48(5), 534-551.

Liu, C. J., Jack, B. M., & Chiu, H. L. (2008). Taiwan elementary teachers’ views of science teaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 6(1), 19-35. DOI: 10.1007/s10763-006-9065-4

Lumpe, A., Czerniak, C., Haney, J., & Beltyukova, S. (2012). Beliefs about teaching science: The relationship between elementary teachers’ participation in professional development and student achievement. International Journal of Science Education, 34(2), 153-166. DOI: 10.1080/09500693.2010.551222

Malandrakis, G. (2018). Influencing Greek pre-service teachers’ efficacy beliefs and self-confidence to implement the new ‘Studies for the Environment ‘curricula. Environmental Education Research, 24(4), 537-563.

Mavrikaki, E., & Athanasiou, K. (2011). Development and application of an instrument to measure Greek primary education teachers’ biology teaching self-efficacy beliefs. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 7(3), 203-213. DOI: 10.12973/ejmste/75197

McKinnon, M., Moussa-Inaty, J., & Barza, L. (2014). Science teaching self-efficacy of culturally foreign teachers: A baseline study in Abu Dhabi. International Journal of Educational Research, 66, 78-89. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijer.2014.03.001

Mojavezi, A., & Tamiz, M. P. (2012). The Impact of Teacher Self-Efficacy on the Students’ Motivation and Achievement. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2, 483-491.

Norris, C. M., Morris, J. E., & Lummis, G. W. (2018). Preservice teachers’ self-efficacy to teach primary science based on ‘science learner’ typology. International Journal of Science Education, 40(18), 2292-2308. DOI:

Moslemi, N., & Mousavi, A. (2019). A psychometric re-examination of the science teaching efficacy and beliefs instrument (STEBI) in a Canadian context. Education Science, 9(1), 17.

Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of educational research, 66(4), 543-578.

Posnanski, T. J. (2002). Professional development programs for elementary science teachers: An analysis of teacher self-efficacy beliefs and a professional development model. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 13(3), 189-220.

Riggs, I., & Enochs, L. (1990). Toward the development of an elementary teacher's science teaching efficacy belief instrument. Science Education, 74, 625-638.

Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological monographs: General and applied, 80(1), 1.

Rubeck, M. L. H. (1990). Path analytical models of variables that influence science and chemistry teaching self-efficacy and outcome expectancy in middle school science teachers (Doctoral dissertation, Kansas State University, Kansas).

Saribas, D., Teksoz, G., & Ertepinar, H. (2014). The relationship between environmental literacy and self-efficacy beliefs toward environmental education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Science, 116(2), 3664-3668. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.820

Sarikaya, H., Cakiroglu, J., & Tekkaya, C. (2005). Self-efficacy, attitude and science knowledge. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 9(4), 38-43.

Savran, A., & Çakiroğlu, J. (2001). Preserve biology teachers' perceived efficacy beliefs in teaching biology. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 21(21).

Shum, L. C., & Cheng, Y. C. (1997). Perceptions of women principals’ leadership and teachers’ work attitudes. Journal of Educational Administration. 10.1108/09578239710161786

Smolleck, L. D., Zembal-Saul, C., & Yoder, E. P. (2006). The development and validation of an instrument to measure preservice teachers’ self-efficacy in regard to the teaching of science as inquiry. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 17(2), 137-163.

Snyder, J. A. (2020). “Higher Education in the Age of Coronavirus”. Boston Review

Thomas, J., Ivey, T., & Puckette, J. (2013). Where is Earth Science? Mining for opportunities in chemistry, physics, and biology. Journal of Geoscience Education, 61(1), 113-119. DOI: 10.5408/12-319.1

Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of educational research, 68(2), 202-248.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher Efficacy: Capturing an Elusive Construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783-805.

UNESCO Institute for Statistics Data. (2020). COVID-19 Impact on Education. UNESCO. Available:

Usher, E. L., & Pajares, F. (2008). Sources of self-efficacy in school: Critical review of the literature and future directions. Review of educational research, 78(4), 751-796.

Yenice, N. (2009). Search of science teachers’ teacher efficacy and self-efficacy levels relating to science teaching for some variables. Procedia social and behavioral science, 1(1), 1062-1067. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.191

Yeung, K. W., & Watkins, D. (2000). Hong Kong student teachers' personal construction of teaching efficacy. Educational Psychology, 20(2), 213-235.

Yılmaz, M., Güneş, P., & Katircioğlu, H. T. (2016). Examination of the teacher self-efficacy of pre-service biology and science teachers in terms of different variables. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 13(1), 45-54.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Eirini Tzovla, Katerina Kedraka

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).