SCALE DEVELOPMENT STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR ADVANCED READING AWARENESS

Rabia Sena Akbaba

Abstract


Reading is defined as the reader perceiving and interpreting written symbols using their physical and mental processes. Reading is one of the four basic language skills and it is also a type of communication between the reader and the writer. Many concepts such as “critical reading, strategic reading, implicit reading, advanced reading” have come to the fore about the reading process carried out by the reader. Forward reading, which is one of the prominent concepts, is the way of reading that is carried out by using appropriate strategies in the whole reading process, before reading, during reading and after reading, and one of the strategies used in reading forward is metacognition strategies. The concept of metacognition can be referred to simply as "thinking about thinking". In this study, it was aimed to develop the Advanced Reading Awareness Scale, which aims to measure the advanced reading awareness of middle school students using metacognition strategies. In order to determine the construct validity of the developed scale, Exploratory Factor Analysis was performed with the data obtained from a group of 513 students formed by middle school students, and then Confirmatory Factor Analysis with data obtained from a different group of 141 people. After applying the scale in two different groups of middle school students, the reliability of the scores was determined by calculating the Cronbach alpha internal consistency coefficients. As a result of Exploratory Factor Analysis, it was determined that the draft scale of 58 items consisted of 21 items and three dimensions. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis also confirmed the three-factor structure of the Advanced Reading Awareness Scale, consisting of 21 items. The scale consists of three dimensions: “pre-reading (planning), reading order (process monitoring) and post-reading (evaluation)”. When the reliability evidences and validity evidences obtained as a result of these analyzes are evaluated together, the Advanced Reading Awareness Scale, which was developed, was found to be a valid and reliable scale that can be used in future studies.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


reading, advanced reading, metacognitive reading, scale development

Full Text:

PDF

References


Baker, L. & Brown, A. L. (1984). Metacognitive skills and reading. In P. D. Pearson (ed.). Handbook of reading research mahwah, NJ: Longman, pp. 353-394.

Balcı, A. (2013). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntem, teknik ve ilkeler. Ankara, Pegem Akademi.

Başaran, M. (2013). 4 sınıf öğrencilerinin üstbilişsel okuma stratejilerini kullanma durumları ve bu stratejilerle okuduğunu anlama arasındaki ilişki. Electronic Turkish Studies, 8(8).

Baydık, B. (2011). Okuma güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin üstbilişsel okuma stratejilerini kullanımı ve öğretmenlerinin okuduğunu anlama öğretim uygulamalarının incelenmesi. Eğitim ve Bilim, 36(162).

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2016). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı. Ankara, Pegem Akademi.

Can, A. (2017). SPSS ile bilimsel araştırma sürecinde nicel veri analizi. Ankara, Pegem Akademi.

Carrell, P. L. (1998). Can reading strategies be successfully taught? Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 21(1), 1-20.

Çelik, E. (2006). Sesli ve sessiz okuma ile içten okumanın karşılaştırılması. D.Ü Ziya Gökalp Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 7, 18-30.

Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, Ş. & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2014). Sosyal bilimler için çok değişkenli istatistik SPSS ve LISREL uygulamaları. Ankara, Pegem Akademi.

Donahue, P. L., Voelkl, K. E., Campbell, J. R. & Mazzeo, J. (1999). The NAEP 1998 reading report card for the nation and the states (NCES 1999-500). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Duke, N. K. & Carlisle, J. (2011). The Development of comprehension. (Ed. M. L. J Kamil, P. D. Pearson, E. B. Moje, & P. P.). Afflerbach handbook of reading research. New York: Routledge, p. 199-228.

Erkuş, A. (2016). Psikolojide ölçme ve ölçek geliştirme-I temel kavramlar ve işlemler. (3. Baskı). Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayınları.

Gelen, İ. (2004). Bilişsel farkındalık stratejilerinin türkçe dersine ilişkin tutum, okuduğunu anlama ve kalıcılığına etkisi. XIII. Ulusal Eğitim Bilimleri Kurultayı, 6-9 Temmuz. İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi, Malatya.

Gündüz, O. & Şimşek, T. (2013). Uygulamalı okuma eğitimi el kitabı. Ankara, Grafiker Yayınları.

İlköğretim Türkçe Dersi (1-8. Sınıflar) Öğretim Programı (2018). Türkçe dersi (1-8. Sınıflar) öğretim programı. Ankara, MEB.

Karatay, H. (2014). Okuma eğitimi kuram ve uygulama. Ankara, Pegem Akademi.

Keklik, İ. (2010). Bilişsel gelişim. İ. Yıldırım. (Ed.), Eğitim psikolojisi. Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık, p. 61-95.

Mert, E. L. (2015). Türkçe öğretmen adaylarinin okuma stratejilerine ilişkin bilişsel farkindalik düzeyleri. Erzincan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9(2), 95-106.

Mokhtari, K. & Reichard, C. A. (2002) Assesing students’ metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 249-259.

Özbay, M. & Bahar, M. A. (2012). İleri okur ve üstbiliş eğitimi. Uluslararası Türkçe Edebiyat Kültür Eğitim (TEKE) Dergisi, 1(1).

Özen, F. & Durkan, E. (2016). Üst bilişsel okuma stratejileri kullandırma ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi, bir geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik çalışması. Turkish Studies, International Periodical for the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 11(14), 565-586.

Pereira Laird, J. A. & Deane, F. P. (1997). Development and validation of a self-report measure of reading strategy use. Reading Psychology: An International Quarterly, 18(3), 185-235.

Rose, D. S., Parks, M., Androes, K., & McMahon, S. D. (2000). Imagery-based learning: ımproving elementary students' reading comprehension with drama techniques. The Journal of Educational Research, 94(1), 55-63.

Sümer, N. (2000). Yapısal eşitlik modelleri: temel kavramlar ve örnek uygulamalar. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 3 (6), 49-73.

Taraban, R. (2011). Information fluency growth through engineering curricula: analysis of students’ text-processing skills and beliefs. Journal of Engineering Education, 100(2), 1-20.

Topçu, Ü. B. (2017). Türk edebiyatı dersinde okuma becerisini geliştirme görevi: beklentiler, sınırlar, öneriler. Başkent University Journal of Education, 1(1), 19-26.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v7i11.3397

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Rabia Sena Akbaba

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).