Demirali Yaşar Ergin


The aim of this study is to develop a scale to determine the psychosocial effects of pandemic outbreaks such as covid-19. The study was conducted with 1546 (EFA) and 909 (CFA) participants. Internet-based method was used to collect data. “Psychosocial Effects of Pandemic Scale (PEPS)”, prepared by the researcher, has been used as a means of data collection. The scale consists of 7 subscales and 30 Likert style items.
Study 1: Varimax rotated EFA was used as scale development statistics to ascertain sub-dimensions. Item-total correlation coefficient and item-remainder correlation coefficient, Cronbach and Rulon coefficient were calculated to determine the reliability.
Study 2: After the scale was structured with EFA and item analysis, the construct validity was tested with CFA. CFI and RMSEA fit indices were used to test the CFA model's suitability. Considering these criteria, CFA models were created for scale. The scale was found to be valid, reliable and available as a result of statistical procedures.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Covid-19, 2019-nCoV, epidemic, pandemic, coronavirus, developing scale

Full Text:



Alyami, M., Henning, M., Krägeloh, C.U. et al. (2020). Psychometric Evaluation of the Arabic Version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. Int J Ment Health Addiction (2020).

Arafat, S. M. Y., Kar, S. K., Marthoenis, M., Sharma, P., Hoque Apu, E., & Kabir, R. (2020a). Psychological underpinning of panic buying during pandemic (COVID-19). Psychiatry Research, 289, e103061.

Arafat, S. M. Y., Kar, S. K. & Kabir, R. (2020b). Possible Controlling Measures of Panic Buying During COVID-19. Int J Ment Health Addiction (2020).

Bhuiyan, A. K. M. I., Sakib, N., Pakpour, A. H. et al. (2020). COVID-19-Related Suicides in Bangladesh Due to Lockdown and Economic Factors: Case Study Evidence from Media Reports. Int J Ment Health Addiction (2020).

Brooks, S. K.; Webster, R. K.; Smith, L. E.; Woodland, L.; Wessely, S.; Greenberg, N.; Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet 2020; 395: 912–20. Published Online February 26, 2020

Cava, Maureen A.; Fay, Krissa E.; Beanlands, Heather J. et al. (2020). The Experience of Quarantine for Individuals Affected by SARS in Toronto. Public Health Nursing Vol. 22 No. 5, September 2005, pp. 398—406 0737-1209/05

Demirbilek, Yasemin; Pehlivantürk, Gülen; Özgüler, Zeynep Özge; Alp Meşe, Emine (2020). COVID-19 outbreak control, example of ministry of health of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences Turk J Med Sci (2020) 50: 489-494 doi:10.3906/sag-2004-187

Desclaux, Alice; Badji, Dioumel; Ndione, Albert Gautier; Sow, Khoudia (2017). Accepted monitoring or endured quarantine? Ebola contacts' perceptions in Senegal. Social Science & Medicine. Volume 178, April 2017, Pages 38-45

Gritsenko, V., Skugarevsky, O., Konstantinov, V. et al. (2020). COVID 19 Fear, Stress, Anxiety, and Substance Use Among Russian and Belarusian University Students. Int J Ment Health Addiction (2020).

Güner, Rahmet; Hasanoğlu, İmran; Aktaş, Firdevs (2020). COVID-19: Prevention and control measures in community. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences Turk J Med Sci (2020) 50: 571-577. doi:10.3906/sag-2004-146 (2020) 50: 571-577 medical/

Jeong, Hyunsuk; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Song, Yeong-Jun; et al. (2016). Mental health status of people isolated due to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Epidemiology and Health. Nov 2016 Volume: 38,

Kline, T. (2005). Psychological Testing: A Practical Approach to Design and Evaluation. California: Sage Publications Ltd.

Knipe, D.; Evans, H.; Marchant, A.; Gunnell, D.; John, A. (2020). Mapping population mental health concerns related to COVID-19 and the consequences of physical distancing: a Google trends analysis. Welcome Open Research, 5, 82–92.

Ling, Gabriel Hoh Teck and Ho, Christina Mee Chyong (2020). Effects of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic on Social Behaviours: From a Social Dilemma Perspective. Technium Social Sciences Journal Vol. 7, 312-320, May 2020 ISSN: 2668-7798

MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1, 130–149.

Mattioli, Anna Vittoria; Puviani, Matteo Ballerini; Nasi, Milena; Farinetti, Alberto. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic: the effects of quarantine on cardiovascular risk. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. May 2020

Munthali, George N. Chidimbah and Xuelian, Wu. (2020). COVID-19 Lockdown Measures on Least Developing Economies in Africa-a case of Malawi Economy. Technium Social Sciences Journal Vol. 7, 295-301, May 2020 ISSN: 2668-7798

Nussbaumer-Streit B., Mayr V., Dobrescu A. I., Chapman A., et al. (2020). Quarantine alone or in combination with other public health measures to control COVID-19: a rapid review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD013574. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013574.

Özer, Mahmut (2020). Educational Policy Actions by the Ministry of National Education in the times of COVID-19. Kastamonu Education Journal, 2020, Vol. 28, No:3, 1124-1129 doi: 10.24106/kefdergi.722280

Sorokin, M. Y., Kasyanov, E. D., Rukavishnikov, G. V., Makarevich, O. V., Neznanov, N. G., Lutova, N. B., & Mazo, G. E. (2020). Structure of anxiety associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in the Russian-speaking sample: results from on-line survey. medRxiv. Retrieved from.

Wang, Guanghai; Zhang, Yunting; Zhao, Jin et al. (2020). Mitigate the effects of home confinement on children during the COVID-19 outbreak. Lancet. Published Online March 2, 2020

Wilder-Smith, A. and Freedman, D.O. (2020). Isolation, quarantine, social distancing and community containment: pivotal role for old-style public health measures in the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. Journal of Travel Medicine, 2020, 1–4 doi: 10.1093/jtm/taaa020

Wu, Ping; Fang, Yunyun; Guan, Zhiqiang et al. (2009). The Psychological Impact of the SARS Epidemic on Hospital Employees in China: Exposure, Risk Perception, and Altruistic Acceptance of Risk. La Revue Canadienne de psychiatrie, vol 54, no 5, mai 2009.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Demirali Yaşar Ergin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).