IS COVID-19 TRANSITIONING CASH COWS INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS INTO CATS?

Fayyaz Hussain Qureshi, Sarwar Khawaja

Abstract


The Covid-19 pandemic has impacted every aspect of human life. It has disrupted people’s lifestyles around the world and international students are no exception. Every industry has been affected, including higher education (HE); for the first time ever in the HE sector, learning and teaching adopted online platforms to deliver the curriculum. At the same time, there has been growing interest in the business of international students across the globe. More than five million international students are currently studying in higher education institutions (HEIs) outside their home countries. It is often assumed that HEIs consider international students a source of revenue and, therefore, seek to recruit as many as possible. The United Kingdom is the second largest and most popular global destination for international students after the United States. The primary purpose of this study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 on international student enrolment around the world in general and in the UK in particular. Our findings show that international students are cash cows, and COVID-19 had a significant impact on the recruitment of international students. 

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


COVID-19, international students, cash cows and cats

Full Text:

PDF

References


Altbach, P. and R. Bassett (2004). “The Brain Trade”, Foreign Policy, September

International students pay premium at UK universities. (2021). Retrieved 24 June 2021, from https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-23614142

Bhandari, R., C. Robles and C. Farrugia (2018). International higher education: Shifting mobilities, policy challenges, and new initiatives, Background paper prepared for the 2019 Global Education Monitoring Report, Global Education Monitoring Report,

Bok, D. (2003). Universities in the marketplace: The commercialization of higher education. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Brown, R. (Ed.) (2010). Higher education and the market. New York, NY: Routledge.

Buchanan, R. T. (2013). 100,000 more international students in the next five years, The Independent, Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/student/news/100000-moreinternational-students-in-the-next-five-years-8736696.html

Bureau of Economic Analysis (2020). International Transactions, International Services, and International Investment Position Tables. International Data. Retrieved from: https://apps.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?reqid=62&step=6&isuri=1&tablelist=245&product=4.

Choudaha, R. (2017). Are International Students “Cash Cows”? International Higher Education Number 90

Consultancy.UK, (2020). Irish higher education sector too dependent on international fees, Retrieved from: https://www.consultancy.uk/news/24839/irish-higher-education-sector-too-dependent-on-international-fees

Daad Stratgies (2025). Retrieved from: https://static.daad.de/media/daad_de/der-daad/wer-wir-sind/daad_strategie_2025.pdf

Douglass, J. A., & Edelstein, R. (2009). The global competition for talent: The rapidly changing market for international students and the need for a strategic approach in the US. The University of California Center for the Study of Higher Education, Research and Occasional Paper Series (CSHE 8.09)

Forbes-Mewett, H. (2016). International Students and Mental Health, Journal of International Students, Vol 6 issue 3

Foster, M. (2014). Student Destination Choices in Higher Education: Exploring Attitudes of Brazilian Students to Study in the United Kingdom. Journal of Research in International Education13 (2): 149–62

Government of Canada (2019). Canada's International Education Strategy (2019-2024), Retrieved from: https://www.international.gc.ca/education/strategy-2019-2024-strategie.aspx?lang=eng

Gullbault, M. (2018). Students as customers in higher education: The (controversial) debate needs to end, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 40, 295-298

Hamzah, N., and Abdullah, S. (2017). A Conceptual framework on international students' adjustments and service quality towards student satisfaction in Malaysian public universities- International Journal of Economic Research

HM Government (2019). International Education Strategy global potential, global growth retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/799349/International_Education_Strategy_Accessible.pdf

ICEF Monitor (2015). The state of international student mobility in 2015, retrieved from: https://monitor.icef.com/2015/11/the-state-of-international-student-mobility-in-2015/

ICEF Monitor (2019). International students generate global economic impact of US$300 billlion. Retrieved from: https://monitor.icef.com/2019/08/international-students-generate-global- economic-impact-of-us300-billion/

Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (2020). Flexibility in post-graduation work permit rules to help international students and Canadian post-secondary institutions - Canada.ca, Government of Canada. Retrieved from: https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/news/notices/pgwpp-rules-covid19.html

Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC, 2021). Retrieved from: https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/news/2021/02/government-of-canada-announces-further-measures-to-support-international-students.html

Johnstone, D. B., and P. Marcucci (2010). Financing HE Worldwide: Who Pays? Who Should Pay?, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Kauppinen, I., & Kaidesoja, T. (2014). A shift towards academic capitalism in Finland. Higher Education Policy, 27, 23-41.

Lee, J. J., Maldonado-Maldonado, A., & Rhoades, G. (2006). The political economy of international student flows: Patterns, ideas, and propositions. In J. C. Smart (ed.) Higher Education Handbook of Theory and Research, Vol. 21, 545-590. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

Lomer, S., Mittelmeier, J., Carmichael- Murphy, P. (2020). Cash cows or pedagogic partners? Mapping pedagogic practices for and with international students, Centre for Global Higher Education

Lomer, S., Papatsiba, V & Naidoo, R. (2018). Constructing a national higher education brand for the UK: positional competition and promised capitals, Studies in Higher Education, 43:1, 134-153

London Economics-LE (2020). Impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on university finances – April 2020. Retrieved from: https://londoneconomics.co.uk/blog/publication/impact-of-the-covid-19-pandemic-on-university-finances-april-2020/

MAC Report (Sept, 2018). Impact of international students in the UK Retrieved from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/739089/Impact_intl_students_report_published_v1.1.pdf

MacLeod, D. (2006). International rescue. The Guardian, Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2006/apr/18/highereducation.internationalstudents

Marginson, S. (2007). Global position and position taking: The case of Australia. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(1), 5-32.

Marginson, S., & Considine, M. (2000). The enterprise university: Power, governance and reinvention in Australia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

McBurnie, G., & Ziguras, C. (2003). Remaking the world in our own image: Australia's efforts to liberalise trade in education services. Australian Journal of Education, 47, 217-234

McCafferty, G. (2013, May 29). China in soft power push with foreign students. CNN. Retrieved from: http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/29/world/asia/china-soft-power-foreign-students

Morphew, C. C., & Eckel, P. D. (Eds.). (2009). Privatizing the public university: Perspectives from across the academy. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. October, Washington, DC, pp. 30-31

OECD (2017). Tuition fee reforms and international mobility, Education Indicators in Focus, No. 51, OECD Publishing, Paris

OECD Education at a Glance (2017). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/eag-2017-en.pdf?expires=1621870228&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=0AEC2C3E8AEFA4950D4CD82A97478DF8

OECD (2014). Education at Glance, the figure retrieved from: https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Project-Atlas/Explore-Data/Infographics/2015-Project-Atlas-Infographics

OECD, Education at a Glance (2019). OECD Indicators, Retrieved from: https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/17d19cd9-en/index.html?itemId=/content/component/17d19cd9-en

OECD, Education at a Glance (2020). OECD Indicators, Retrieved from: https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/69096873-en.pdf?expires=1621870335&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=6A0C8E49C7C5607101B80E31CD3ADB21

Project Atlas, 2000, 2000, UNESCO, 2020, Retrieved from: https://iie.widen.net/s/rfw2c7rrbd/project-atlas-infographics-2020

Qureshi, F., Khawaja, S., Zia, T. (2020). Mature Undergraduate Students’ Satisfaction with Online Teaching During the Covid-19, European Journal of Education Studies, [S.l.],V. 7, N. 12 Retrieved from: https://iie.widen.net/s/rfw2c7rrbd/project-atlas-infographics-2020

Riaño, Y. Mol, C. & Raghuram, P. (2018). New directions in studying policies of international student mobility and migration, Globalisation, Societies and Education, 16:3, 283-294

Safdar, B., Habib, A., Amjad, A., & Abbas, J. (2020). Treating Students as Customers in Higher Education Institutions and its Impact on their Academic Performance. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 9(4), 176–191.

Sharifian, F. (2013). Globalisation and developing metacultural competence in learning English as an International Language, Multilingual Education, Vol. 3/1, p. 7

Slaughter, S., & Cantwell, B. (2012). Transatlantic moves to the market: The United States and the European Union. Higher Education, 63, 583-606

Soo, K., T. and Elliott C. (2010). Does price matter? Overseas students in UK higher education, Economics of Education Review, 29, 553-56

Study London (2019). Retrieved from: https://www.studylondon.ac.uk/why-study-in-london/top-10-facts

The Guardian (March 2021). Treated like cash cows': international students at top London universities withhold £29,000 fees, Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/education/2021/mar/13/treated-like-cash-cows-international-students-at-top-london-universities-withhold-29000-fees

The PIE News (2020). Retrieved from: https://thepienews.com/news/positive-signal-to-intl-students-as-canada-sets-immigration-targets/

The Times Higher Education World University Rankings (2021). Retrieved from: The Times, (November, 2020), Retrieved from: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/non-eu-students-still-keen-on-irish-universities-ccpwqdc2s

The Times Higher Education World University Rankings, (2021), Retrieved from: https://www.timeshighereducation.com/world-university-rankings/2021/world-ranking#!/page/0/length/25/sort_by/rank/sort_order/asc/cols/stats

Trade Union Congress (2017). Retrieved from: https://www.tuc.org.uk/news/london-and-south-east-set-account-40-economy-end-next-parliament-says-tuc

UK Government (2019). Retrieved from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/plans-to-boost-international-student-numbers-and-income

UKCISA (2020). Retrieved from: https://www.ukcisa.org.uk/studentnews/1566/Home-Office-makes-further-visa-provisions-until-31-August

UNESCO (2015). Facts and Figures, Mobility in higher education, retrieved from: https://en.unesco.org/node/252278

UNESCO (2016) retrieved from: UNESCO (2016) retrieved from: http://uis.unesco.org/en/uis-student-flow

UNESCO (2018). Institute for Statistics, “Education Data.” UIS database. Retrieved from: http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

UNESCO (2018). International higher education: shifting mobilities, policy challenges, and new initiatives retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000266078

UNESCO (2020). COVID-19 Educational Disruption and Response, retrieved from: UNESCO website, https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse

Universities UK, (2017). Retrieved from: https://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/news/Pages/International-students-now-worth-25-billion-to-UK-economy---new-research.aspx

Wilkins, S. & Huisman, J. (2011). International student destination choice: the influence of home campus experience on the decision to consider branch campuses, Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 61-83.

Ziguras, C. (2011). Extra-national provision. In R. King, S. Marginson, & R. Naidoo (Eds) Handbook on Globalization and Higher Education (pp. 114-128) Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v8i7.3816

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Fayyaz Hussain Qureshi, Sarwar Khawaja

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2022. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).