Eygenia Davou, Natassa Raikou


The present study investigates to what extent teachers serving in mountainous areas and periphery schools consider that their perceptions on factors affecting school performance influence the way they choose their teaching practices and shape their attitudes towards students. In the survey, 133 secondary school teachers of the Prefecture of Ilia answered a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. According to teachers’ beliefs, school performance is influenced by socio-economic, educational and geographical factors. It is not associated with intelligence/brilliance and it can be improved with the help of the teaching staff. Teachers' expectations have an effect on their school performance, while the Curricula do not take into account the learning abilities of the students and the school evaluation does not assess the school performance in a meritocratic way. Nevertheless, positive expectations for the performance of weak students are maintained by choosing teaching practices that they believe will enhance their performance.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


teacher beliefs, student teaching, performance assessment, secondary teacher education

Full Text:



Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. (1972). Attitudes and normative beliefs as factors influencing behavioral intentions, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 21(1), 1–9.

Anderson, L. M. & Bird, T. (1995). How Three Prospective Teachers Construed Three Cases of Teaching. Michigan State University, College of Education: NCRTL Publications. From Reports/Rr943.pdf.

Askouni, N. (2003). Social inequalities in school (In the series: "Keys and anti-keys" by Androussou, A. Program "Education of Muslim children"). Athens: YPEPTH-University of Athens. Retrieved 21-11-19, from (in Greek)

Askouni, N. (2007). Socio-cultural context of education: Social inequalities in education. Athens: Ministry of Education, University of Athens. (in Greek)

Bagakis, G. (2004). The teacher and the curriculum. Athens: Metaixmio. (in Greek)

Bassetas, K. (1999). "The teacher's negative expectations for students' abilities as a cause of school failure and social exclusion." Proceedings of the 5th International Scientific Conference "School Failure and Social Exclusion: Causes, Consequences and Coping" (Ioannina, October 17-19). Athens: Hellenic Letters, pp. 181-199. (in Greek)

Bassetas, K. (2010). Teachers' expectations and their effects on students. Athens: Grigoris. (in Greek)

Bassetas, K. & Poulou, M. (2001). The attribution of the causes and the assumption of responsibilities by the teachers for the performance of their Students. Pedagogical Review, 32. Retrieved 4-2-20, from (in Greek)

Bernstein, B. (1961). Social class and linguistic development: A theory of social learning. In: A. Fragoudaki, Sociology of Education, Theories for social inequality in school (pp. 393-431). Athens: Papazisi. (in Greek)

Blackledge, D., Hunt, B. (2000). Sociology of Education (English Edition 1985). Athens: Metaichio. (in Greek)

Booth, A. & Dunn, J. (1996). Family-school links: how do they affect educational

outcomes? Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Boser, U., Wilhelm, M., & Hanna, R. (2014). The Power of the Pygmalion Effect: Teachers Expectations Strongly Predict College Completion. From: No ED 564606 (12/12/2019).

Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, Cl. (1996). The Heirs. Students and culture (translated by Panagiotopoulos, N., & Vidali). Athens: Book Institute – Kardamitsa. (in Greek)

Bourdieu, P. (1999). Language and symbolic power. (Translated by Kiki, Kapsabeli). Athens: Kardamitsa. (in Greek)

Brookfield, St. (1995). Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco: JosseyBass.

Brookfield, St. (2005). The Power of Critical Theory for Adult Learning and Teaching. Open University Press.

Brookfield, S. D. (2012). Teaching for Critical Thinking. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Brophy, J. E., & Good, T. L. (1974). Teacher-student relationships: Causes and

consequences. New York: Holt.

Brouzos, A. (1999). Educational and social exclusion in multi-grade schools: myth and reality. In: Ch. Konstantinou & G. Pleios (Ed.), School Failure and Social Exclusion, (pp. 263-279). Athens: Greek. (in Greek)

Bryman, A. (2018). Social Research Methods. Oxford: University Press Oxford

Chang, J. (2011). A Case Study of the “Pygmalion Effect”: Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement. International Education Studies, 4(1), 198- 201. From: No EJ 1066376 (10/11/2016).

Clark, C. M., & Peterson, P. L. (1986). Teachers' thought processes. In M. C. Wittrock, (Ed.) Handbook of Research on Teaching (pp. 255-296). NewYork: Macmillan.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Educational research methodology (translation by S. Kyranakis, M. Mavraki, C. Mitsopoulou, P. Bithara and M. Filopoulou). Athens: Metaixmio. (in Greek)

Cooper, H. (1985). Models of teacher expectation communication. In J. B. Dusek

(Ed.), Teacher expectancies, 136-158. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. From:, No ED 374096 (20/10/2019).

Creswell, W. J. (2016). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (Greek translation by Kouvarakou, N., Ed. Ch. Tzorbatzoudis). Athens: ION. (in Greek)

Day, C. (1999). Developing teachers: The challenges of lifelong learning. London/Philadelphia, PA: Routledge/Falmer Press.

Desforges, C. & Abouchaar, A. (2003). The impact of parental involvement, parental

support and family education on pupil achievement and adjustment: A literature

review, 433. London: DfES.

Devine, F. (2004). How Parents Help Their Children Get Good Jobs. University of

Manchester. Cambridge: University press.

Dimitropoulos, E. (2007). Educational evaluation. Student Assessment. Theory - Practice - Problems. Athens: Grigoris. (in Greek)

Fang, Z. (1996). A review of research on teacher beliefs and practices. Educational

Research, 38(1), 47-65. doi:10.1080/0013188960380104

Feinberg, W.& Soltis, J. (1992). School and Society. New York: Teachers College Press.

Fernández-Mellizo, Μ. & Martínez-García, J.S. (2017). Inequality of educational

opportunities: School failure trends in Spain (1977–2012). International Studies in

Sociology of Education, 26(3), 267-287.

Fives, H., & Buehl, M. M. (2008). What do teachers believe? Developing a framework for examining beliefs about teachers' knowledge and ability. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 134-176.

Flouris G. (2019). School failure: the views of primary school teachers on the causes and ways to deal with it. (Doctoral thesis). School of Education: Department of Pedagogy of Kindergarten Teachers, University of Ioannina. (in Greek)

Fragoudaki, A. (1985). Sociology of education: Theories of social inequality in school. Athens: Papazisis. (in Greek)

Fragoudaki, A. (2001). Social Inequalities and Prejudices and their Relation to the Mass School Failure of Popular Class Origin Students. In: Th. Dragona, E. Skourtou, & A. Fragoudaki, Education: Cultural Differences and Social Inequalities. Social Identities / Diversities - Social Inequalities, Bilingualism and School. Volume A. Patra: E.A. P. (in Greek)

Frangoulis, G. (2008). Teachers' perceptions and practices regarding the management of educational inequality and student performance. (Doctoral Thesis), Ε.Κ.P.Α (NCUA). (in Greek)

Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Herder and Herder.

Freire, P. (1977). Education for critical consciousness. London: Sheed & Ward.

Freire, P. (1985). The politics of education culture, power and liberation, trans Macedo. D. Massachusetts: Bergin & Garvey Publishers, Inc.

Freire, P. (1997). Teachers as cultural workers. Letters to those who dare to teach. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Fry, P. S. (1984). Teachers' conceptions of students' intelligence and intelligent functioning: A cross-sectional study of elementary, secondary and tertiary level teachers. International Journal of Psychology,19. 457-474.

Gardner, H., Kornbacher, M. L. & Wake, W. K. (1996). Intelligence: multiple perspectives. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace.

Georgiou, S. N., Stavrinidis, P., & Panaoura, G. (2002). School failure: causal performance and teacher behavior. Pedagogical Review, 33, 115-136. (in Greek)

Georgiou, S. N., & Tourva, A. (2006). Classroom stereotypes. In: E. Ftiakas, A. Gagatsis, I. Elias, & M. Modestou (Eds.), The Modern Educational Research in Cyprus. Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the Cyprus Pedagogical Society (pp. 921-934), June 2-3, 2006, Nicosia: University of Cyprus. (in Greek)

Giavrimis, P., & Papanis, E. (2008). Sociological Dimensions of School Failure: The Views of Educators and Students of Educational Schools. The Journal of International Social Research, 1(5), 326-354.

Giavrimis, P., Papanis, E., Panitsidou, E. A., & Papastamatis, A. (2011). Empirical Research on Education and Student Failure: Teachers’ Psychological and Sociological Interpretations. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1 (9), 40-47.

Good, T. L. (1982). How teachers' expectations affect results. American Education.


Heliou, M. (1984). Educational and Social Dynamics, Distribution of educational opportunities, Educational realities, Social dynamics and gender equality. Athens: Poreia. (in Greek)

Jarvis, P. (2001). Adult education at the end of twentieth century in: Jarvis P. (ed.) Twentieth century thinkers in adult and continuing education (Kogan Page, UK).

Kagan, D. M. (1992). Implications of research on teacher beliefs. Educational Psychologist, 27(1), 65-90.

Kalaitzopoulou, M. (2001). The teacher as thinking professional. Athens: Typotheto. (in Greek)

KANEP & GSEE, (Jan. 2011). The basic figures of Greek education 2010 (primary and secondary education). Athens: C.AN.E.P /G.S.E.E. (in Greek)

Kassotakis, M. I. (2003). Assessing student performance. Means, methods, problems, perspectives. Athens: Grigoris. (in Greek)

Kassotakis, M. I. (2013). Assessing student performance: Theoretical approaches and practical applications. Athens: Grigoris. (in Greek)

Katsamagou, M. B. (2003). Where teachers and students attribute students' difficulties at school. Pedagogical Review, 35, 115-130. (in Greek)

Katsikas, Ch., & Kavvadias, G. (2000). Inequality in Greek Education: The Evolution of the Access Opportunities to Greek Education (1960-2000). Athens: Gutenberg. (in Greek)

Katsillis, I., & Lolou, Ch. (1999). Influence of significant others and educational ambitions. Greek Pedagogical and Educational Research. Athens: Atrapos. (in Greek)

Kelmali, M. (2015). Teachers' views on the profile of the student with low school performance. (Postgraduate Thesis). Patras: E.A.P. (in Greek)

Kelpanidis, M. (1997). Welfare State and education. Equality of opportunities and equality of outcomes: Education as an individual achievement or social benefit. Athens: Kyriakidis. (in Greek)

Kossivaki, F. (1999). School failure: an indication of the pathology of the centralized education system and a possibility of overcoming social exclusion in educational practice. In: Ch. Konstantinou, G. Pleios (ed.), School failure and social exclusion - Proceedings of the 8thInternational Scientific Conference. Athens: Ellinika Grammata. (in Greek)

Konstantinou, H. I. (2002). Assessing student performance as pedagogical logic and school practice. Athens: Gutenberg. (in Greek)

Kostaridou - Efklides A. (1999). Motivation Psychology Athens: Ellinika Grammata. (in Greek)

Koutselini-Ioannidou, M. (2008) Structuring and Differentiation of Teaching-Learning in mixed capacity classes: Philosophy and concept. Strategies and Applications. Nicosia: Self-published. (in Greek)

Koutselini, M., & Pyrgiotakis, I. (2015). Differentiation of teaching and learning. Athens: Pedio. (in Greek)

Lamnias, K. (2002). Sociological theory and education. Distinct approaches. Athens: Metaixmio. (in Greek)

Lampiri - Dimaki, I.- Panagiotopoulos, N. (1995). P. Bourdieu: Sociology of Education. Athens: Kardamitsa-Delfini. (in Greek)

Lappa - Vardouli, K., & Vardoulis, A. (2006). Social origin and school performance of the student population in the region of Attica. Epistimes Agogis (Educational Sciences): 2, 169-176. (in Greek)

Lariou-Drettaki, M. (1993). Abandonment of compulsory education and factors related to it. Athens: Grigoris. (in Greek)

Lykidi, SF (2012). Teachers' perceptions for their students and their expectations for school performance. A research approach to culturally diverse students. (Postgraduate paper). University of Patras (in Greek)

Lynott, D.-J., & Woolfolk, A. E. (1994). Teachers' implicit theories of intelligence and their educational goals. Journal of Research & Development in Education, 27(4), 253–264.

Matsagouras, H. G. (2001). Teaching Strategies: Critical Thinking in Teaching Practice. Athens: Gutenberg. (in Greek)

Matsagouras, H. G. (2004). Theory and Practice of Teaching, B '. Teaching Strategies. Athens: Gutenberg. (in Greek)

Matsagouras, H. G. (2006). Theory of teaching: personal theory as a framework for reflexive-critical analysis. Athens: Gutenberg. (in Greek)

Mezirow, J. (1998). On Critical Reflection. Adult Education Quarterly, 48, 185-198.

Mezirow, J. (2009). An Overview on Transformative Learning. In Illeris, K. (Ed.), Contemporary Theories of Learning. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 90-105.

Milios, G. (1993). Education and Power. Athens: Critical Scientific Library. (in Greek)

Mylonas Th. & Dimitriadis A. (1999). From inequality to school to exclusion in the classroom. In: Pedagogical Society of Greece - School of Education, University of Ioannina (pp. 385-408), School failure and social exclusion, causes, consequences, treatment, curators: Ch. Konstantinou, G. Pleios, Proceedings of the 8th scientific conference, Athens: Ellinika Grammata. (in Greek)

Mylonas, Th. (1993). Social reproduction in school: Theory and Experience. Athens: Armos. (in Greek)

Mylonas, Th. (2004). The Reproduction of Social Classes through School Mechanisms - The Secondary Education in the Village and in the City. Athens: Gutenberg. (in Greek)

Nespor, J. (1987). The role of beliefs in the practice of teaching. Journal of

Curriculum Studies, 19 (4), 317-328.

Niari, M. (2013). The Pygmalion phenomenon in Distance Education. The case of the 'Studies in Education' program of EAP. Patras: E.A.P. Retrieved 15-11-2019, from (in Greek)

Noutsos, M. (2003). Unified Curriculum Framework: the ideology of “akhtarma”, Educational Community, 67, 24-29. (in Greek)

Pagoni, B. (2017). Teachers' views on school failure and their connection with educational practice: Quantitative research (Diploma Thesis: Studies in Education). Patras: E.A.P. (in Greek)

Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers' Beliefs and Educational Research: Cleaning Up a Messy Construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307-332. From, ( 12/12/2019).

Papakonstantinou, P. (1981). Inequality in Greek Compulsory Education. School and Social Origin.O Politis Magazine, 44, 46-51. (in Greek)

Patereka, H. (1986). Basic concepts of Pierre Bourdieu and Jean Claude Passeron in sociology of education. Thessaloniki: Kyriakidis Bros. (in Greek)

Poimenidou, D. (2009). The teacher's personal theory: a theoretical and empirical approach. Thessaloniki: Kyriakidis Bros. (in Greek)

Pyrgiotakis, E. I. (2006). Introduction to pedagogical science. Athens: Pedio. (in Greek)

Rekalidou, G. (2011). Assessment of learning and assessment for learning. Student Performance as Pedagogical and School Logic. Athens: Pedio. (in Greek)

Reynolds, D. (2007). Restraining Golem and Harnessing Pygmalion in the Classroom: A Laboratory Study of Managerial Expectations and Task Design. Academy of management Learning &Education. 6(4), 475-483. Retrieved 10-1- 2020, from

Rist, R. C. (2000). Student social class and teacher expectations: the self-fulfilling

prophecy in ghetto education. Harvard Educational Review: 70(3), 257-301.

Robson, C. (2010). Real World Research. Athens: Gutenberg. (in Greek)

Sharp, R., & Green, A. (1978). Education and Social Control. London: Routledge.

Sipitanou, A. (1992). Selection mechanisms in the Greek educational system (1834-1985). (Doctoral thesis). A.P.TH (AUTh). (in Greek)

Sotiropoulou, K. (1998). Representations of teachers in technical and Vocational education: Social inequalities and pedagogical principles in the Technical - Vocational High School. The concepts of learning, discipline and adaptation. (Doctoral Thesis), Ε.Κ.Π.Α (NCUA). (in Greek)

Sprouse, J., & Webb J. (1994). The Pygmalion Effect and Its Influence on the Grading and Gender Assignment on Spelling and Essay Assessments, No ED 374096. Retrieved 20/10/2019 from

Trouilloud, D., & Sarrazin, P. (2003). Les connaissances actuelles sur l’ effet Pygmalion: processus, poids et modulateurs. Revue Française de Pédagogie, 145, 89-119

Tsoukalas, K. (1992). Dependence and Reproduction. The Social Role of Educational Mechanisms in Greece (1830-1922). Athens: Themelio (in Greek)

Tzani, M. (2004) Sociology of Education. Athens: Grigoris. (in Greek)

Vaikousi-Vergidou, D. M. (1994). Teachers' attitudes towards children with school difficulties in writing and reading in the first three grades of primary school. (Doctoral thesis). Aristotle University, Thessaloniki. (in Greek)

Vareltzi, E. & Giavrimis, P. (2018). Students with low school performance and the theory of "label". Educational Sciences, 1, 137-151. Retrieved 21-11-19, from (in Greek)

Visscher, A. J. & Coe, R. (2003). School performance feedback systems:

conceptualisation, analysis, and reflection. School effectiveness and school improvement, 14, 321-349.

Weiner, B. (1994). Integrating Social and Personal Theories of Achievement Striving. Review of Educational Research, 64(4), 557-573.

Xochellis, P. (2000). The educational work as a social role: A research on the self-perception and the attitudes of Greek teachers. Thessaloniki: Kyriakidis Bros. (in Greek)

Xochellis, P. (2005). The teacher in the modern world: his role and professional profile today, the education and the evaluation of his work. Athens: Typothito-Dardanos. (in Greek)

Yero, J, L. (2002). Teaching in Mind: How Teacher Thinking Shapes Education.

Hamilton, Montana: MindFlight Publishing.

Zapanioti, N. (2019). The views of Primary Education teachers on the relationship between social inequality and school performance. (Graduate Thesis. Education: Cultural differences and social inequalities). Patras: EAP. (in Greek).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Eygenia Davou, Natassa Raikou

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2022. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).