THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ONLINE LEARNING AND STUDENT’S PERFORMANCE IN THE RURAL AREAS IN MALAYSIA - THE MEDIATING ROLE OF PARENT’S SUPPORT

Kumaran Kanapathipillai, Subaneeswasri Narayanan

Abstract


This study was undertaken during the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown to scrutinise the mediating role of parental support on the relationship between online learning and student's academic performance. To realise the objectives, the researchers used the quantitative approach to explore this mediating effect. The population of this study was 7.4 million families who are living in the rural areas in Malaysia. Using the simple random sampling method, 650 parents in rural areas were chosen as the participants in this research. For data collection, closed-ended questionnaires were used by the researchers. Out of the 650 questionnaires, 437 were collected, but only 426 could be used as the respondents did not fully complete the rest. The results of this research illuminated that parent's intervention and support are statistically and significantly necessary during their children's online learning sessions to enhance their children's academic performance during the Covid-19 pandemic. This research can guide academics in public and private education sectors, parents, and the Ministry of Education to focus and upgrade the online learning and teaching methodologies rather than just depending on conventional teaching and learning methodologies. Online learning could be beneficial whenever a catastrophic incident occurs that may disrupt children's education; as such, it would be wise to encourage parents to be always ready for this new way of learning in the new milieu.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


online learning, parent’s support, academic performance, students, rural area

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abuhammad, S. (2020). Barriers To Distance Learning During the Covid-19 Outbreak: A Qualitative Review from Parents’ Perspective. Heliyon 2020, 6, 1–5.

Ahn, J., Butler, B. S., Alam, A., & Webster, S. A. (2013). Learner Participation and Engagement in Open Online Courses: Insights from The Peer 2 Peer University. Merlot Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 9(2), 160–171. Retrieved From: https://jolt.merlot.org/vol9no2/ahn_0613.pdf

Amber, G., Ogurlu, U., Logan, N., & Cook, P. (2020). Parents’ Experiences with Remote Education During Covid-19 School Closures. Am. J. Qual. Res, 4, 45–65.

Amponsah, M. W., Milledzi, E. Y., & Ampofo, E. T. (2018). Relationship Between Parental Involvement and Academic Performance of Senior High School Students: The Case of Ashanti Mampong Municipality of Ghana. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(1), 1-8.

Antipkina, I., & Ludlow, L. H. (2020). Parental Involvement as A Holistic Concept Using Rasch/Guttman Scenario Scales. J. Psychoeduc. Assess, 38, 846–865

Bayrak, D. F., Moanes, D. M., & Altun, D. A. (2020). Development Of Online Course Satisfaction Scale. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 21(4), 110–122. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.803378.

Bhamani, S., Makhdoom, A. Z., Bharuchi, V., Ali, N., Kaleem, S., & Ahmed, D. (2020). Home Learning in Times of Covid: Experiences of Parents. Journal Of Education and Educational Development, 7(1), 9-26.

Boonk, L., Gijselaers, H., Ritzen, H., & Brand-Gruwel, S. (2018). A Review of The Relationship Between Parental Involvement Indicators and Academic Achievement. Educational Research Review, 24.

Bowen, N. K. (1999). A Role for School Social Workers in Promoting Student Success Through School - Family Partnerships. Social Work in Education, 21(1), 34-48.

Bowen, W. G. (2013). Higher Education in The Digital Age. Princeton University Press.

Bozkurt, A., Jung, I., Xiao, J., Vladimirschi, V., Schuwer, R., Egorov, G., Lambert, S. R., Al-Freih, M., Pete, J., & Olcott, D., Jr. (2020). A Global Outlook to The Interruption of Education Due to Covid-19 Pandemic: Navigating in A Time of Uncertainty and Crisis. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15, 1–126.

Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Introduction To Socioeconomic Status and Child Development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 371–399.

Bruni, O., Sette, S., Fontanesi, L., Baiocco, R., Laghi, F., & Baumgartner, E. (2015). Technology Use and Sleep Quality in Preadolescence and Adolescence. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 11(12), 1433–1441. https://doi.org/10.5664/jcsm. 5282.

Byeon, H., & Hong, S. (2015). Relationship Between Television Viewing and Language Delay in Toddlers: Evidence from A Korea National Cross-Sectional Survey. Plos One, 10(3), E0120663. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. 0120663

Cai, J. (2003). Investigating Parental Roles in Students' Learning of Mathematics from A Cross-National Perspective. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 15(2), 87- 106.

Chang, G. C., & Yano, S. (2020). How Are Countries Addressing the Covid-19 Challenges in Education? A Snapshot of Policy Measures. Retrieved From World Education Blog: https://gemreportunesco.wordpress.com.

Cheesman, J., Simpson, N., & Wint, A. (2006). Determinants Of Student Performance at University: Reflections from The Caribbean. Retrieved From: http://www.mona.uwi.edu/opair/research/student-performance-paper-revised.pdf

Chinna, K. & Yuen, C. W. (2015). Statistical Analysis Using SPSS. (2nd Ed.). Pearson Malaysia.

Cui, S., Zhang, C., Wang, S., Zhang, X., Wang, L., Zhang, L., Yuan, Q., Huang, C., Cheng, F., Zhang, K., & Zhou, X. (2021). Experiences And Attitudes of Elementary School Students and Their Parents Toward Online Learning in China During the Covid-19 Pandemic: Questionnaire Study, Journal of Medical Internet Research, 23(5).

Daniela, L., Rubene, Z., & Rudolfa, A. (2021). Parents’ Perspectives on Remote Learning in The Pandemic Context. Sustainability 2021, 13, 3640.

Darius, P. S. H., Gundabattini, E., & Darius, G. S. (2021). A Survey on The Effectiveness of Online Teaching–Learning Methods for University and College Students. Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India): Series B. 1-10.

Department of Statistics Malaysia Dosm. (2020). Current Population Estimates, Malaysia, 2020. Retrieved From: http://www.dosm.gov.my.

Desforges, C. & Abouchaar, A. (2003). The Impact of Parental Involvement, Parental Support and Family Education on Pupil Achievement and Adjustment: A Literature Review, Department of Education and Skills.

Dong, C., Cao, S., & Lia, H. (2020). Young Children’s Online Learning During Covid-19 Pandemic: Chinese Parents’ Beliefs and Attitudes. Child. Youth Serv. Rev, 118, 2–9.

Dube, B. (2020). Rural Online Learning in The Context of Covid 19 In South Africa: Evoking an Inclusive Education Approach. Multidisciplinary Journal of Educational Research, 10(2), 135–157. doi: 10.4471/remie.2020.5607

Epstein, J. L. (1994). Theory To Practice: School and Family Partnerships Lead to School Improvement and Student Success. In C. L. Fagnano & B. Z. Werber (Eds.), School, Family, And Community Interaction: A View from The Firing Lines. 39-52. Boulder, Co: Westview.

Epstein, J. L., & Sander, M. (2000). Handbook of the Sociologic of Education. New York, Ny: Springer.

Evans, M. A., Shaw, D., & Bell, M. (2000). Home Literacy Activities and Their Influence on Early Literacy Skills. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, 65-75.

Fatoni, A., Nurkhayati, N., Nurdiawati, E., Fidziah, E., Pamungkas, G., & Azizi, E. (2020). University Students Online Learning System During Covid-19 Pandemic: Advantages, Constraints, And Solutions. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11(7), 570–576. https://doi.org/10.31838/srp.2020.7.81

Finn, J. D. (1998). Parental Engagement That Makes a Difference. Educational Leadership, 55, 20-24.

Fontanesi, L., Marchetti, D., Mazza, C., Di Giandomenico, S., Roma, P., & Verrocchio, M.C. (2020). The Effect of The Covid-19 Lockdown on Parents: A Call to Adopt Urgent Measures. Psychol. Trauma Theory Res. Pract. Policy, 12, S79–S81.

Friedel, J., Cortina, K. S., Turner, J. C., & Midgley, C. (2010). Changes In Efficacy Beliefs in Mathematics Across the Transition to Middle School: Examining the Effects of Perceived Teacher and Parent Goal Emphases. Journal of Educational Psychology, 10, 102-114.

Gálvez, I., Cruz, F. J. F., Díaz, M. J. F., & Roberts, B. (2016). Evaluation of the Impact of Quality Management Systems on School Climate. International Journal of Educational Management, 30(4), 474-492.

Garbe, A., Ogurlu, U., Logan, N., & Cook, P. (2020). Covid-19 And Remote Learning: Experiences of Parents with Children During the Pandemic. American Journal of Qualitative. Research, 4, 45–65.

Garbett, C. (2011). Activity-Based Costing Models for Alternative Modes of Delivering On-Line Courses. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 1-14.

Gestwicki, C. (1996). What Is Parent Involvement? Home School and Community Relations -A Guide to Working with Parents.(3rd Ed.) 83-106. Delmar Publishers Albany, Ny.

Gopal, R., Singh, V. & Aggarwal, A. (2021). Impact Of Online Classes on The Satisfaction and Performance of Students During the Pandemic Period of Covid 19. Educ Inf Technol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10523-1

Gould, P. (1999). Parents Are Stepping Out of Their Passive Roles. San Diego Business Journal, 20(18), 6-10.

Gravetter, F. & Wallnau, L. (2014). Essentials of Statistics for The Behavioural Sciences. (8th Ed.), Belmont, Ca: Wadsworth.

Green, K. C. (2010). The Campus Computing Survey. The Campus Computing Project. http://www.CampuscomPuting.Net/2010-Campus-Computing-Survey

Gugiu, P. C., Gugiu, M. R., Barnes, M., Gimbert, B., & Sanders, M. (2019). The Development and Validation of The Parental Involvement Survey in Their Children’s Elementary Studies (Pisces). J. Child Fam. Stud, 28, 627–641.

Guolaug, G. (2010). Effects Of Parental Involvement in Education: A Case Study in Namibia. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Faculty of Education Studies, University of Iceland.

Harris, A. And J. Goodall (2008). Do Parents Know They Matter? Engaging All Parents in Learning. Educational Research 50(3): 277 - 289.

Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction To Mediation, Moderation, And Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach, (2nd Ed.). New York, Ny: Guilford Press.

Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M. (1997). Why Do Parents Become Involved in Their Children’s Education? Rev. Educ. Res, 67, 3–42.

Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Walker, J. M. T., Sandler, H. M., Whetsel, D., Green, C. L., Wilkins, A. S., & Closson, K. (2005). Why Do Parents Become Involved? Research Findings and Implications. Elem. Sch. J., 106, 105–130

Hurley, K. D., Lambert, M. C., January, S. A., & D’angelo, J. F. (2017). Confirmatory Factor Analyses Comparing Parental Involvement Frameworks with Secondary Students. Psychol. Sch., 54, 947–964.

Ilag B. N. (2018) Introduction: Microsoft Teams. In: Introducing Microsoft Teams. Apress, Berkeley, Ca. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-3567-6_1

Ishak, M. (2021). 47 Children Under 18 Died from Covid-19 Since the Start of Pandemic. The New Straits Times (2nd September 2021).

Jeynes, W. H. (2005). The Effects of Parental Involvement on The Academic Achievement of African American Youth. The Journal of Negro Education, 260–274.

Jeynes, W. H. (2007). The Relationship Between Parental Involvement and Urban Secondary School Student Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis. Urban Education, 42(1), 82-110.

Kong, Q. (2020). Practical Exploration of Home Study Guidance for Students During the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Case Study of Hangzhou Liuxia Elementary School in Zhejiang Province, China. Sci. Insigt Edu. Front., 5, 557–561.

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational & Psychological Measurement.

Langevine, J. A. E. (2020). Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement of Middle School: Hispanic American Students in South Texas (Doctoral Dissertation, Grand Canyon University).

Lara, L., & Saracostti, M. (2019). Effect Of Parental Involvement on Children’s Academic Achievement in Chile. Frontiers Psychology,10:1464. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01464

Lindsay, G., Davis, H. (2009). Parent Support Advisor Pilot Evaluation Final Report. London, Dcsf.

Liu, Y., Sulaimani, M. F., & Henning, J. E. (2020). The Significance of Parental Involvement in The Development in Infancy. Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 10, 161–166.

Lockman, A. S., & Schirmer, B. R. (2020). Online Instruction in Higher Education: Promising, Research Based, and Evidence-Based Practices. Journal of Education and E-Learning Research, 7(2), 130–152.

Lorenzo, M., Godás, A., & Santos Rego, M. A. (2017). Main Determinants of Immigrant Families’ Involvement and Participation in School Life. Cultura Y Educación, 29(2), 213-253. https://doi.org/10.1080/11356405.2017.1305074

Loton, D., Parker, P., Stein, C., & Gauci, S. (2020). Remote Learning During Covid-19: Student Satisfaction and Performance. Edarxiv,7(3),1-9 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342686256_Remote_learning_during_COVID-19_Student_satisfaction_and_performance

Mahdinejad, V. & Amoii, M. (2011). Assessment Of Computer Self-Efficacy and Attitudes Toward Computers in University Students. Iranian Journal of Higher Education, 16(4), 102-117.

Masa, D In Mila, B. (2017). Parental Involvement as An Important Factor for Successful Education. C.E.P.S Journal, 7(3), 137 – 152.

Mau, W. (1997). Parental Influences on The High School Student’s Academic Achievement: A Comparison of Asian Immigrants, Asian Americans, And White Americans. Psychology In the Schools, 34(3), 267-277.

Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones, K. (2010, September). Evaluation Of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies. Monograph. Retrieved February 1, 2014, Retrieved From http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list.

Möhring, K., Naumann, E., Reifenscheid, M., Blom, A. G., Wenz, A., Rettig, T., Lehrer, R., Krieger, U., Juhl, S., & Friedel, S., (2020). Die Mannheimer Corona-Studie: Schwerpunktbericht Zu Erwerbstätigkeit Und Kinderbetreuung [The Mannheim Corona Report: Focus on Employment and Childcare]. Retrieved From: https://www.uni-mannheim.de/gip/corona-studie/

Najafi, H. (2012). The Pedagogical Principles and Theories of Distance Education. Iranian Journal Curriculum Planning, 9(7), 32-41.

Navarro, P., & Shoemaker, J. (2000). Performance And Perceptions of Distance Learners in Cyberspace. American Journal of Distance Education, 14(2), 15–35.

Nyarko, K. (2011). Parental School Involvement: The Case of Ghana. Journal Of Emerging Trends in Education Research and Policy Studies, 2(5), 378-381.

Otani, M. (2017). Relationships Between Parental Involvement and Academic. Osipp Discussion Paper Journal, 1-67.

Pei, L., & Wu, H. (2019). Does Online Learning Work Better Than Offline Learning in Undergraduate Medical Education? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Medical Education Online, 24(1), 1666538.

Porumbu, D., & Necsoi, D. (2013). Relationship Between Parental Involvement/Attitude and Children's School Achievements. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 76. 706-710. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.04.191

Ribeiro, L. M., Cunha, R. S., Silva, M. C. A. E., Carvalho, M., & Vital, M. L. (2021). Parental Involvement During Pandemic Times: Challenges and Opportunities. Educ. Sci, 11, 302.

Richardson, S. A. (2009). Principal’s Perceptions of Parental Involvement in Urban Districts of Ohio. Research In the Schools, 16(1), 1-12.

Riffell, S., & Sibley, D. (2005). Using Web-Based Instruction to Improve Large Undergraduate Biology Courses: An Evaluation of a Hybrid Course Format. Computers & Education, 44(3), 217–235.

Sanders, M. G. & Sheldon, S. B. (2009). Principals Matter: A Guide to School, Family, And Community Partnerships. Corwin: A Sage Company.

Seginer, R. (2006). Parents’ Educational Involvement: A Developmental Ecology Perspective. Parenting: Science and Practice, 6, 1-48.

Shehzadi, S., Nisar, Q. A., Hussain, M. S., Basheer, M. F., Hameed, W. U., & Chaudhry, N. I. (2020). The Role of Digital Learning Toward Students’ Satisfaction and University Brand Image at Educational Institutes of Pakistan: A Post-Effect of Covid-19. Asian Education and Development Studies, 10(2), 276–294.

Sheldon, S. B. (2009). In School, Family, And Community Partnerships: Your Handbook for Action (3rd Ed.). USA: Corwin Press.

Simatwa, E. M. W. (2010). Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development and Its Implication for Instructional Management at Presecondary School Level. Educational Research and Reviews, 5(7), 366–371.

Smith, S. J., Burdette, P. J., Cheatham, G. A., & Harvey, S. P. (2016). Parental Role and Support for Online Learning of Students with Disabilities: A Paradigm Shift. Journal Of Special Education Leadership, 29(2), 101 -112.

Sooter, T. (2013). Early Childhood Education in Nigeria: Issues and Problems. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 173–179. https://doi.org/10.5901/jesr.2013.v3n5p173

Spera, C. (2005). A Review of The Relationship Among Parenting Practices, Parenting Styles, And Adolescent School Achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 17(2), 125–146.

Sui-Chu, E. H., & Willms, J. D. (1996). Effects Of Parental Involvement on Eighth-Grade Achievement. The Sociological Quarterly, 69, 126-141.

The Jamovi Project (2021). Jamovi. (Version 2.0) [Computer Software]. Retrieved From https://www.jamovi.org.

The World Bank (2020). Rural Population (% of Total Population) – Malaysia. Retrieved From: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator.

Tran, T., Hoang, A. D., Nguyen, Y. C., Nguyen, L. C, Ta, N. T., Pham, Q. H., Pham, C. X., Le, Q. A., Dinh, V. H., & Nguyen, T. T. (2020). Toward Sustainable Learning During School Suspension: Socioeconomic, Occupational Aspirations, And Learning Behaviour of Vietnamese Students During Covid-19. Sustainability, 12(10):4195. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104195

UNESCO (2020). United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Covid19 Educational Disruption and Response. UNESCO, Paris, France. https://en.unesco.org/themes/education-emergencies/coronavirus-school- closures.

Valerie, J. S., Eric, G. H., Jody, S. U., & Rim, R. (2011). A Review of The Relationship Between Parental Involvement and Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Education Research International. doi:10.1155/2011/915326

Velez, W., & Jones, T. G. (1997). Effects Of Parent Involvement on The Academic Achievement of Latino Children, Research and Opinion, 11(1). Retrieved From: www.uwm.edu/dept/cuir/4informationresources/rando/11-1.html

Ventayen, R. J .M., Estira, K. L. A., De Guzman, M. J., Cabaluna, C. M., & Espinosa, N. N. (2018). Usability Evaluation of Google Classroom: Basis for The Adaptation of Gsuite E-Learning Platform. Asia Pac. J. Educ. Arts Sci. 5(1), 47–51.

Wang, G., Zhang, Y., Zhao, J., Zhang, J., & Jiang, F. (2020). Mitigate The Effects of Home Confinement on Children During the Covid-19 Outbreak. The Lancet, 395, 945-947.

Wang, M. T., & Sheikh_Khalil, S. (2014). Does Parental Involvement Matter for Student Achievement and Mental Health in High School? Child Development, 85(2), 610-625.

Waters, L. H., Menchaca, M. P., & Borup, J. (2014). Parental Involvement In K-12 Online and Blended Learning. In Handbook of Research On K-12 Online and Blended Learning, 403–422.

Wilder, S. (2014). Effects Of Parental Involvement on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Synthesis. Educ. Rev, 66, 377–397.

World Health Organisation, Who. (2021). Weekly Epidemiological Update. Retrieved From: https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/weekly

Yi, E. H. L., & Lee, K. (2021) Parents’ Views on Young Children’s Distance Learning and Screen Time During Covid-19 Class Suspension in Hong Kong, Early Education and Development, 32(6), 863-880, doi: 10.1080/10409289.2020.

Zameni, F. & Kardan, S. (2011). Impact Of Using ICT On Learning Mathematics. Iranian Journal of Information and Communications Technology in Education Sciences, 1(1), 23-38.

Zameni, F., Nasimi, A., Rezayirad, M., & Ghanbarpoor, M. (2011). The Impact of Multimedia Applications on The Academic Achievement of Students in A Sociology Class. Iranian Journal of Information and Communications Technology in Education Sciences, 2(2).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v8i11.3969

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Kumaran Kanapathipillai, Subaneeswasri Narayanan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).