Benjamin K. Koskei, Godfrey K. Ngeno, Catherine Simiyu


The present study was an attempt to explore the influence of gender roles on boy-child educational aspirations in secondary school in Nakuru County, Kenya. The question of educational aspirations among Kenyan boys has become the subject of concern. It is against this background that the need for this study was envisaged. The researcher employed a causal comparative (ex-post facto) design in the study. The study involved a sample of 420 Form three boys in secondary schools. Research instruments used in collecting data were questionnaire and interview schedule. A pilot study was carried out to ensure reliability of the instrument. Internal consistency was determined through the use of Cronchbach’s alpha formula and a coefficient of 0.867 was obtained. Expert judgment was employed to establish the validity of the research instrument. The finding from this study revealed that gender roles significantly influenced boys’ educational aspirations. It is anticipated that the study will aid to develop greater insights into the above factor influencing the boy-child educational aspirations in public secondary schools for the purpose of improving the quality of education in Kenya. Knowledge of such factors would be useful to government, parents and teachers since it may guide in formulating strategies that may improve boys’ educational aspirations


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



gender roles, boy-child and educational aspirations, secondary school


Boxer, P., Delorenzo, S. S., & Mercado. (2011). Educational aspiration-expectation discrepancies in relaxation to socioeconomic and academic risk-related factors. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 930 857).

Challender, C. (2004). Natural resources: From Curse to Blessing. Equals Newsletter (Beyond Access: Gender, Education and Development), Issue 4, January.

Dube, K. (2005). “Long-Term Consequences of Childhood Sexual Abuse: By Gender Victim” The American Journal of Preventive Medicine. JAMA, 200; 286:389.

Epstein, D. (1998). Real boys don’t work: ‘underachievement’, masculinity, and the harassment of ‘sissies’. In D Epstein et al (Eds), Failing Boys? Issues in Gender and Achievement. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Flaxman, M. (1992). School belonging, educational aspirations; and academic self-efficiency among African American male high school students. Retrieved from

Fraser, B. J. (1994). Research on classroom and school climate. In D, Gabel (Ed.), Handbook of research on science teaching and learning. (pp. 493-541) New York: Macmillan).

Gil, F., Padilla, C., Teresa, M., & Svarez, O. M. (2011). Influence of gender, educational attainment and family environment on the educational aspirations of secondary school students. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ952 677)

Government of Samoa. (2003b). Annual Statistical Abstract 2001-2002. Apia: Division of Statistical Services.

Hanushek, E., & Ludger, W. (2015). Universal Basic Skills: What Countries Stand to Gain. OECD.

Hunte, K. (2002). Gender Equality, Male Under-Achievement. MOE Insight, Ministry of Education, Guyana. Available at

Jobo, M. (2001). Lesotho: A Baseline Study of the Teacher Education System. Multi-Site Teacher Education research Project (MUSTER), Discussion Paper 8. Centre for International Education, University of Sussex.

Lutta, S. (2015, January, 1st). Poor school results blamed on culture. The Daily Nation pp 9, Nation Media Group. Nairobi, Kenya.

Madarosova, G., Tavel, V. D., & Abel, S. (2010). Factors associated with educational aspirations among adolescents: cues to counteract socioeconomic differences. Social Science and Medicine, 54 (3), 106-148. Retrieved from

Marks, J. (2001). Girls Know Better: Educational Attainment of Boys and Girls. London: CIVITAS – the Institute for the Study of Civil Society.

Republic of Kenya, (2007). Elimu News: A Newsletter of Ministry of Education. Nairobi; Government Printer.

Singh, R., & Varma, S. K. (1995). The effect of academic aspiration and intelligence on scholastic success of XI graders. Indian Educational Abstracts, 4, 12.

Sino, V. A. (2010). A comparative study of self-concept and level of aspiration of the students from general and coir worker’s families in Alappuzha district. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam.

Tanya, M. N., Beth, A., Carolyn, B., & Deborah, G. H. (2009). Understanding the educational aspirations of African American Adolescents child, family and community factors. Journal of American Educational Research, 48(1), 57-72. Retrieved from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Benjamin K. Koskei, Godfrey K. Ngeno, Catherine Simiyu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).