Kleopatra Paskou, George Kaliampos, Konstantinos Ravanis


In the current study, the representations of kindergarten prospective teachers on the rainbow formation phenomenon as well as their interest in implementing rainbow-related activities in their teaching were explored. This study is part of a research perspective that aims to document the difficulties of Early Childhood Education teachers in Physical and Biological Sciences. Rainbow topic was chosen as on the one hand it is often included in curricula along with various other visual phenomena and on the other hand, there is no related research that focuses on teachers’ views about this phenomenon. The research was qualitative and exploratory in nature and was conducted through a semi-structured interview. From data analysis it was found that the kindergarten prospective teachers of the sample have structured mental representations about rainbow which are far from school scientific knowledge. At the same time, they consider the rainbow to be an interesting topic for developing teaching activities in the classroom.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


early childhood science education, mental representations, beliefs, kindergarten prospective teachers, rainbow

Full Text:



Adbo, K., & Vidal Carulla, C. (2019). Designing play-based learning chemistry activities in the preschool environment. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 20, 542-553.

Ampartzaki, M., Kalogiannakis, M., & Papadakis, S. (2021). Deepening our knowledge about sustainability education in the early years: Lessons from a water project. Education Sciences, 11(6), 251.

Baysen, E. (2016). Object disappearance rules and it’s applications/misconceptions. International Journal of Educational Sciences, 15(1/2), 66-76.

Boilevin, J.-M., Jameau, A., Delserieys, A., Jégou, C., Kampeza, M., & Ravanis, K. (2020). Enseigner les sciences dès l’école maternelle à l’aide d’un modèle précurseur. Les cas de la lumière et des ombres. Grand N, 105, 65-74.

Convertini, J. (2021). Psychosocial obstacles in young children argumentative interactions. Education Sciences, 11(5), 224.

Creswell, J. W. (2015). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. Sage Publications.

Cruz-Guzmán, M., García-Carmona, A., & Criado, A. M. (2020) Analysis of the models proposed by prospective pre-primary teachers when studying water. International Journal of Science Education, 42(17), 2876-2897.

Dori, Y. J., & Avargil, S. (2015). Promoting metacognitive skills in the context of chemistry education. In I. Eilks & A. Hofstein (Eds.), Relevant Chemistry Education: From theory to practice (pp. 119-141). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Draganoudi, A., Lavidas, K., & Kaliampos, G. (2021). Kindergarten teachers' representations for their socio-cognitive practices during the natural sciences activities. Acta Didactica Napocensia, 14(1), 174-181.

Dumas Carré, A., Weil-Barais, A., Ravanis, K., & Shourcheh, F. (2003). Interactions maître-élèves en cours d’activités scientifiques à l’école maternelle: approche comparative. Bulletin de Psychologie, 56(4), 493-508.

Elmalı, Ş., & Laçin Şimşek, C. (2021). Pre-School children’s opinions about the concepts of floating and sinking and the effect of in-class interactions on their opinions. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 36(1), 227-238.

Ergazaki, M., & Zogza, V. (2012). How does the model of Inquiry-Based Science Education work in the kindergarten: The case of biology. Review of Science, Mathematics and ICT Education, 7(2), 73-97.

Fang, Ζ. (1996). A review of research on teacher beliefs and practices. Educational Research, 38(1), 47-65.

French, L. (2004). Science as the center of a coherent, Integrated early childhood curriculum. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19, 138-149.

Hast, M. (2020). Children’s understanding of the rainbow: A trajectory of conceptual development across middle childhood. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(6), em1859.

Hewitt, P. (2015). Conceptual Physics. Pearson.

Hindarti, S., Sulistiyo, U., Hamidah, A., & Effendi-Hasibuan, M. H. (2021). The early-year children’s engagement and scientific-phenomena recognition in Indonesia. In Proceedings of the 3rd Green Development International Conference - Advances in Engineering Research, v. 205 (pp. 343-351). Atlantis Press.

Jelinek, J. A. (2021). Children’s Astronomy. Development of the shape of the Earth concept in Polish children between 5 and 10 years of age. Education Sciences, 11(2), 75.

Kaliampos, G., Kada, V., Saregar, A., & Ravanis, K. (2020). Preschool pupils’ mental representations on electricity, simple electrical circuit and electrical appliances. European Journal of Education Studies, 7(12), 596-611.

Kambouri, M. (2016). Investigating early years teachers’ understanding and response to children’s preconceptions. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 24(6), 907-927.

Kampeza, M., Vellopoulou, A., Fragkiadaki, G., & Ravanis, K. (2016). The expansion thermometer in preschoolers’ thinking. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 15(2), 185-193.

Kavalari, P., Kakana, D. M., & Christidou, V. (2012). Contemporary teaching methods and science content knowledge in preschool education: Searching for connections. Procedia – Social and Behavioural Studies, 46, 3649-3654.

Kikas, E. (2010). Children's thinking. Clouds, rain, and rainbow in children’s explanations. Electronic Journal of Folklore, 44, 113-130.

Kornelaki, A. C., & Plakitsi, K. (2018). Identifying contradictions in Science Education activity using the change laboratory methodology. World Journal of Education, 8(2), 27-45.

MacDonald, A., Danaia, L., Sikder, S., & Huser, C. (2021). Early childhood educators’ beliefs and confidence regarding STEM Education. International Journal of Early Childhood, 53, 241–259.

Malleus, Ε., Kikas, Ε., & Kruus. S. (2016). Students' understanding of cloud and rainbow formation and teachers' awareness of students' performance. International Journal of Science Education, 38(6), 1-19.

Paños, E., Martínez Rodenas, P., & Reyes Ruiz-Gallardo, J. (2022). La flotabilidad a examen en las aulas de infantil. Evaluación del nivel de guía del docente. Enseñanza de las Ciencias, 40(1), 161-177.

Pantidos, P., Herakleioti, E., & Chachlioutaki, M. E. (2017). Reanalysing children’s responses on shadow formation: A comparative approach to bodily expressions and verbal discourse. International Journal of Science Education, 39(18), 2508-2527.

Papandreou, M., & Kalaitzidou, K. (2019). Kindergarten teachers’ beliefs and practices towards elicitation in science teaching. Educational Journal of the University of Patras UNESCO Chair, 6(1), 99-110.

Pereira, S., Rodrigues, M. J., & Vieira, R. M. (2020). Scientific literacy in the early years – practical work as a teaching and learning strategy. Early Child Development and Care, 190(1), 64-78.

Ravanis, K. (2017). Early Childhood Science Education: state of the art and perspectives. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 16(3), 284-288.

Ravanis, K. (2020). Precursor models of the Physical Sciences in Early Childhood Education students’ thinking. Science Education Research and Praxis, 76, 24-31.

Ravanis, K. (2021). The Physical Sciences in Early Childhood Education: theoretical frameworks, strategies, and activities. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1796, 012092.

Saçkes, M., Trundel, K. C., & Shaheen, M. (2020). The effect of balanced learning curriculum on young children’s learning of science. Early Childhood Education, 48, 305-312.

Sesto, V., & García-Rodeja, I. (2021). How do five- to six-year-old children interpret a burning candle? Education Sciences, 11(5), 213.

Siry, C., & Kremer, I. (2011). Children explain the rainbow. Using young children’s ideas to guide Science curricula. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 20(5), 643-655.

Skopeliti, I., Thanopoulou, K., & Tsagkareli, M. (2016). Preschool students’ understanding of astronomical objects and Solar System and their categorizations of the Earth. In J. Katsillis (Ed.), Proceedings of the Conference "Confronting Contemporary Educational Challenges Through Research" (pp. 536- 544). Patras, Greece: University of Patras.

Tormala, Z. L., & Petty, R. E. (2007). Contextual contrast and perceived knowledge: Exploring the implications for persuasion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(1), 17-30.

Vartuli, S. (1999). How Early Childhood teacher beliefs vary across grade level. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 14(4), 489-514.

Vellopoulou, A., & Ravanis, K. (2012). From the formal curriculum to the lesson planning: the didactic transposition kindergarten teachers’ carry out as they plan to teach dissolution. Skholê, 17, 71-76.

Wilhelm, T., & Henninger, P. (2012). Schülervorstellungen zum Regenbogen. Didaktik der Physik, Frühjahrstagung.

Zotti, E., & Fragkiadaki, G. (2021). Greek pre-service and in-service early childhood teachers’ beliefs about approaching and teaching Science in the early years. Mediterranean Journal of Education, 1(1), 31-42.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Kleopatra Paskou, George Kaliampos, Konstantinos Ravanis

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).